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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#3 [url]

Mar 25 13 8:51 AM


Several petroglyphs in Wyoming and Boone counties, West Virginia, long-identified as random Indian doodling with little message content, may actually be Celtic Ogham writing. Translations of the petroglyphs reveal several Christian messages, as in the segment illustrated below. Based upon the style of the Ogham, these petroglyphs may have been chiseled some time between the early Sixth and late Eighth centuries. The Ogham writers may have been Irish monks who, after the fashion of St. Brendan, sailed west from Europe during this period.

An ancient language form that originated in the North African area of our most ancient civilizations has been studied by Nyland (2001). He found that Ogam inscriptions found in North America seem to be closely related to the ancient language, which is being called Saharan. It appears that the Basque language is a close relative to the original Saharan. Following is a discussion of the translation of the Horse Creek Petroglyph:

Barry Fell is not the only one who attempted to translate the purported ogham (ogam) Horse Creek petroglyph of southern West Virginia.

A Disagreement Translating the Horse Creek Petroglyph

New England Antiquities Research Association

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#4 [url]

Mar 25 13 8:53 AM

Irish in America Before Columbus

  A petroglyph in Wyoming County, West Virginia, testifies to the presence of Irish monks in America between the 6th and the 8th centuries. The petroglyph was translated from Ogam Script in 1972 with two clear results. Firstly, the translation revealed a Christian message linking Christmas to the Winter Solstice. Secondly, it indicated that the sun would shine through a notch onto the text on Christmas morning.When tested, this proved to be true.
By Ida Jane Gallagher and Barry Fell  
  Ida Jane Gallagher tells the story...

Icicles clung to the overhanging rocks when Tony Shields, Ida Jane Gallagher, H.P. Meadows and Bradley Toler met at the Wyoming County Petroglyph before sunrise on December 22, 1982. A light coering of snow brightened the clear morning. Shields watched impatiently as shadows moved down the tree trunks on the mountain above the rock shelter and the horizon lightened. At last, the first glimpse of the sun broke over the mountain ridge at 9.05 A.M.

Gallagher began photographing a spectacular sunburst, not realizing until the film was processed that the rising sun looked like a six-pointed Christmas Star. Shields made compass readings and kept an eye on thte petroglyph tp see where the sun's direct rays would strike it.

"Look! Look It's (the sun's rays) hitting the panel," he called. A glimmer of pale sunlight struck the sun symbol on the left side of the petroglyph, and the rising sun soon bathed the entire panel in warm sunlight. Shields immediatly noticed that the sunlight was funneling through a three-sided notch formed by the rock overhang, the upper left-hand wall of the shelter and a rock shelf that jutted out above the small petroglyph on the lower left wall. A shadow cast by the left wall of the shelter fell to the left of the sun symbol and its adjacent markings. As the group watched, the shadow inched from left to right. Before their eyes, light dawned on West Virginia history.

"That proves it," Shields said pointing to the wall notch. He was the first to realize that Dr. Fell's decipherment never mentioned the horizon. It specified only that a ray of sun would graze the notch on the left side. The ancient scribe was referring to the shelter wall notch!

This most remarkable turn of events served as a reminder that things do not always happen as expected. The group continued to watch as the solar phenomenon demonstrated physical proof of Dr. Fell's decipherment.

How appropriate it is that this ancient testament to Christ's birth was carved in the West Virginia hills where mountain folks have deep religious roots.

Early Christians connected Christ's birth with the winter solstice. The Gospels do not specify the day of Nativity. However, in the fourth century A.D. the church fathers set December 25 as the date in order to incorporate the pagan winter festivals of rebirth in the Christian tradition.

Irish monks possibly reached Norths America by the sixth century A.D.. St. Patrick Christianized the Irish between 432 and 461. By this time the Gealic people had established a class of learned men, who found a natural place in the Christian establishment. A century after St. Patrick's arrival, Irish monks and scholars began evangelizing abroad. St. Brendan, an Irish monk, supposedly made a voyage across the Atlantic Ocean from Ireland to Newfoundland on the eartern coast of Canada in the sixth century. In modern times Timothy Severin set out to duplicate St. Brendan's voyage in a leather-hulled sailing boat, built to sixth century.

It seems possible that the scribes who cut the West Virginia inscriptions may have been Irish missionaries in the wake of Brendan's voyage, for these inscriptions are Christian.

Barry Fell explains the details...

The rock-cut inscriptions which are the subject of this article are located at archaeological sites in Wyoming and Boone Counties, West Virginia. They appear to date from the 6th-8th centuries A.D., and they are written in Old Irish language, employing an alphabet called Ogam, found also on ancient rock-cut inscriptions in Ireland. The inscriptions are accompanied by short annotations in ancient Libyan alphabetic script. The Libyan script is used to render two languages in the annotations 1) the ancient Libyan tongue itself, and 2) an Algonquian dialect of the northeastern group, perhaps allied to Shawnee. In this report I deal only with the Old Irish texts, as these are the most detailed.

The Ogam alphabet is illustrated in Figure A.

Most of our knowledge of Ogam comes from a Dublin manuscript, known as the Ogam Tract, composed by an unidentified monk in the 14th century. It describes some 94 varieties of Ogam and other alphabets known to the scribe, but the writer indicates that he knew of some 150 varieties of ancient Irish alphabets. Archaeological research shows that Ogam was widely used in many parts of the ancient world. It also occurs on Celtic coins issued in Gaul in the second century before Christ, some hundreds of years before the earliest known Irish Ogam inscriptions.

The scribe relates the mythical account of the origin of Ogam. He tells us that the first Ogam message ever written was the work of a magician named Ogmios, and that it was a warning sent to Lug informing him of a plot to abduct his wife. On line 11 of folio page 309 of the Ogam Tract, the scribe reproduces the supposed warning message sent to Lug. It consists of the Ogam letters "S-N". This is the earliest literary reference to the Ogam Consaine (consonantal Ogam), for the letters "S-N" are the consonants of the Old Irish word "siona" meaning "warning". The passage in the Tract is marked by the arrow and the word is shown enlarged below the Tract.

Although the scribe evidently was familiar with Ogam Consaine, he did not give it that name, or any name at all. It was left for the 18th century Irish poet Eoghan Ruadh Ua Suilleabhain (1748-84) to coin the name. "Consonantal Ogam", and he did so in drawing attention to old, undeciphered, rock-cut inscriptions in Ireland, whose meaning remained a mystery; for scholars of the day, unable to deal with a written script from which the vowels were omitted, could make no sense of the markings.

The ancient Ogam Consaine inscriptions of Ireland are found mainly in that country's northern section, and there are others of similar type in parts of Scotland. An example is the line of Ogam slashes visible on the capstone of the Bronze Age cromlech (grave monument) at Castlederg, in County Tyrone. In southern Ireland, especially Counties Cork and Kerry, the Ogam inscriptions are fully provided with the vowel points, and these have therefore been deciphered long since. The West Virginian Ogam inscriptions seem to have an affinity with those of northern Ireland.

Irish monastic records state that during the reign of Pope Pelagius (555-561), an Irish ecclesiastic named St. Brendan (Brennain) made two voyages across the Atlantic Ocean, discovering a land far to the west, identified by some historians as North America. It is known that Brendan founded the famous monastery of Clonfert in County Galway in the year 561, by which date his last voyage had been completed. It seems possible that the scribes who cut the West Virginia inscriptions may have been Irish missionaries in the wake of Brendan's voyage, for these inscriptions are Christian. This is evident even before they are deciphered, because the early Christian symbols of piety, such as the various Chi-Rho monograms (of the name of Christ) and the Dextera Dei ("Right hand of God"), appear at the sites together with the Ogam texts.

The Chi-Rho comprises a symbol formed from the two Greek letters that stand first in the name "Christ", Ch (resembling an X) and R (resembling a P). These letters are written separately at the site in Boone County, which is called the Horse Creek Petroglyph. At the Wyoming County Petroglyph, one of the Chi-Rho signs is a combination of the two letters and closely matches a version used on the Byzantine coins of the Emperor Justinian I (527-565). A different version of the Chi-Rho is the labarum (scepter) type, so-called because it formed the upper part of the labarum scepter of the Byzantine emperors. The labarum Chi-Rho appears on coins of Gratian (367-375), and there is a matching version at the Wyoming County site, while a later version found on coins issued by the Anglo-Saxon Wulfred, Archbishop of Canterbury (805-833).

Peculiarly Irish is the symbol called by scholars "The Incarnation Initial", of which a simplified version is seen in the Lindisfarne Gospels (A.D. 700). It consists of a large Chi, always introduced by the scribes at the beginning of the 18th verse of the first chapter of Matthew, where the evangelist writes, "Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise".

The Wyoming County inscription relates the birth of Christ, and then, after stating that the child was born to Mary, the scribe inserts an Ogam version of the Incarnation initial. He has inserted some Ogam strokes into the Chi, to make the word "G-ia-N (gaine), meaning "Incarnation". When I first attempted to find the meaning of this sign, I read the Ogam letters in the sequence Ia-n-g (ionga) meaning "notch". As a word for notch, "cab", occurs earlier in the inscription, referring to a notch that the sun will shine through on Christmas morning, this seemed a likely decipherment. But I believe the correct interpretation is that the whole symbol is an Ogam version of the Incarnation Initial.

On a rock face adjacent to the Dextera Dei ("Right hand of God") site occur two lines of script not yet deciphered. In the upper line occurs the well known symbol, I H C +, used by the Western Church as a monogram of the name of Jesus. The letters are the first three Greek letters, IES, in the name "Iesos" (Jesus).

Another pious symbol used by the early Christians is the Dextera Dei, or Right Hand of God. There is an example carved on the 10th century Irish cross of Muiredach, at Monasterboice. On page 347 of my book, Saga America, attention is drawn to the occurrence of this symbol at American archaeological sites. I have suggested that it implies contacts with Europe around the 19th century, when the symbol was a popular feature in coinage designs. whether the West Virginian examples should be dated to the 10th century is at present uncertain, but my belief is that its presence supports the idea of continuing Irish contacts over a period of several centuries in the latter part of the first millennium.

The West Virginia Ogam texts are the longest Ogam inscriptions recorded anywhere in the world. They exhibit the grammar and vocabulary of Old Irish in a manner previously inknown in such early rock-cut inscriptions in any Celtic language. The protection of these sites is of paramount importance.
Ida Jane Gallagher is a freelance writer who has been researching and writing about ancient American history since 1977.

Dr. Barry Fell is an emeritus professor at Harvard University. He wrote America B.C., which American Booksellers Association presented to the White House in 1977 as one of the best 250 books published between 1973 and 1977 in the United States.

Our thanks to Aaveen Kerrisk for sending on the magazine Wonderful West Virginia, March 1983. Number 1, Volume 47, where this article was first printed.
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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#5 [url]

Mar 25 13 8:57 AM


by Gary Vey for ViewZone

The idea that he had discovered evidence of ancient Europeans and Asians in the panhandle of Oklahoma was not unusual to Bill McGlone. He spent the better part of his life examining and researching the petroglyphs that were etched into the cliffs, peaks and caves all around his home in La Junta, Colorado.


I first met Bill when I visited La Junta to explore the possibility that an Arabic language, now extinct for millennia, was mingled with the etchings and doodling of the Plains Indians. My first impression was that he looked like Burl Ives and had the gentle friendliness of Captain Kangaroo. He was too weak to rise from his chair and I was soon to learn that his health would not permit his guidance when we examined the petroglyphs.

Bill was an engineer and a scientist. He quickly turned the misfortune of his illness into a more "empirical and objective" way for the ViewZone feature to be researched. Bill had drawn a detailed map of the entire region with landmarks and arrows pointing to a cliff and "Look here." Much of the passage was through cattle that were grazing in huge acreage that was bordered every mile by dirt streets numbering, "26, 25, 24...etc.," and, "G, H, I..." My little Geo Prism would have made a brilliant star in some Marlborough, macho commercial. But the map did its work and I finally located a remote part of the National Grasslands and followed the arrows to a narrow cave.

ogam.cave.jpgSince Bill's discovery, the Park Service has been moved to protect the cave from vandalism. An iron cage has been erected to block the entrance and the cave can only be accessed with a key from the local Park Ranger. Luckily for us, Bill had secured the key in advance. We were able to enter the cave and set up our camera equipment to capture the anticipated spectacle.

The area was boxed in by high canyons on three sides. There was a sandy river running through the central flat courtyard and the many petroglyphs were etched into the cliff walls, facing this courtyard. These can be viewed in a previously posted story about Picket Wire Canyon. In the midst of one of these cliff walls there was a crack about sixteen feet high and about two feet at the widest point. Once you squeezed through the narrow opening, the cave didn't open up much more. It's walls were smooth and ran almost parallel until they narrowed to a pile of rubble about thirty feet inside the cave.

With all the markings on the cliffs surrounding it, this smooth rock was unblemished except for two unusual group of lines. The first was etched along a protrusion or bump on the otherwise linear wall. The other group of lines was located directly across from this bump. These lines were different from the Plains Indian markings and symbols. Bill McGlone has copied and studied these lines with the conclusion that they were, in fact, a written language called Ogam.

Bill explained that Celtics had a way of communicating with hand signs and that they often would write these signs to spell messages in rock or wood. A horizontal line was first drawn. Then vertical lines were arranged in groups, either above or below the line, or both. These vertical lines represented the position of the fingers, either raised or bent, or missing. By examining the group of lines in this cave, Bill had deciphered both messages, using old Celtic phonetics.


Not only do the lines translate into old Celtic, but the translation is verified by the concurrence of the alignment with the sun.

The first inscription read, "[We are the] People of the Sun." And the inscriptions on the bump, protruding from the flat wall read, "On the day of Bel, the sun will strike here."

Ogam is the oldest form of writing in Ireland and Scotland. It can still be seen inscribed on hundreds of large and small stones, on the walls of some caves, but also on bone, ivory, bronze and silver objects. The Ogam script was especially well adapted for use on sticks. Sticks are part of the Basque word for "alphabet": agaka, agglutinated from aga-aka, aga (stick or pole) and akats (notch). The meaning of the word agaka therefore isn't so much "alphabet" as "writing", a stick with Ogam notches conveying a message. The name Ogam likely comes from oga-ama, ogasun (property, wealth) ama (Priestess, mother) property of the Priestess, which indicates that the script may originally have been designed for use by the clergy of the pre-Christian religion.

Ogam may have originated in Libya, from where the first Gnostic missionaries are thought to have come. It was adopted and further developed by the first (Gnostic) monks in Ireland around 350 A.D. Our earliest information indicates that they were not sure as to where Ogam came from. According to the "Auraicept" the origin of Irish and Ogam must be sought in the Near East: "In Dacia it was invented, though others say it was in the Plain of Shinar" (line 1105-06). A "made in Ireland" version is recorded in "In Lebor Ogaim" in which the inventor is "Ogma mac Elathan who is said to have been skilled in speech and poetry and to have created the system as proof of his intellectual ability and with the intention that it should be the preserve of the learned, to the exclusion of rustics and fools" ( McManus 8.4). The script was used by the Gnostic monks as a monument script between 450 and 800 A.D. and the succeeding Roman Catholic Benedictines used it for literary purposes between ca 700 and 900 A.D. Every time the script was inscribed in stone it must have been used thousands of times on sticks, for which medium the script was obviously designed. Over 600 Ogam inscriptions are known from Ireland (collected by R.A.S. Macalister), some 40 from Scotland ( A. Jackson) and a growing number from the east coast of North America. The fact that not a single one had been successfully translated is not so much the fault of the monks who wrote the texts, as of our linguists, all of whom assumed that the language of the script was Gaelic. However, this assumption appears to be without foundation, because the syntax of he Gaelic language in no way lends itself to be written in traditional Ogam.


Only on the Summer Equinox is the inscription illuminated by the rising sun in a way that suggests it was intentionally carved to mark this important day of the year.

This would have been enough for most explorers but Bill was also a scientist. He discovered that the "day of Bel" -- or Balentine, was the Summer Equinox, on June 21st. Bill and some companions stakes out the cave many days prior to the Equinox and watched the sun's rays angle a shaft of morning light through the Eastern facing cave. The pattern was different every morning but there was no illumination of the bump. Then, on the morning of the Equinox, Bill and his friends witnessed and photographed the rays of light fully illuminating the inscription.

This may not prove Bill's case though. The interior of the cave, although very old, is protected from the patina that usually forms on rock surfaces exposed to the elements and assists in determining age. If these are Ogam, they could have been placed here at any time by someone with the knowledge of Celtic. The face that there is little Native American inscriptions in the cave may suggest that either the cave was somehow blocked or that the symbols pre-dated the Indians and were respected as sacred.

Of course, there are many other possibilities. It could be, as Bill conjectured, that explorers came up the Mississippi and followed the river system clear to the base of the Rocky Mountains. Perhaps they camped in the area for a while and then moved on. Or maybe they are buried somewhere in the canyon.

Bill McGlone is sadly gone now. His work is largely abandoned as traditional academics always scowled at Bill's tenacity and creative thinking. If I had not seen the mile upon mile of ancient petroglyphs, in a writing system far different from traditional Native Americans, I would be able to let go of Bill's ideas. But I have seen them. They are right now out in the hot Colorado sun, being worn and tarnished by the elements, once more free to hide the untidy bits of history that just might reveal something about ourselves that we didn't know...

ViewZone Magazine || --NEXT--(ogam translation program) || Comments?

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#6 [url]

Mar 25 13 9:12 AM

Petroglyph Anomalies of the American Southwest

(Please be patient while graphics are loading.)

by Gary A. David
Copyright © 2002 by Gary A. David. All rights reserved. No photos may be used without permission.

Homolovi State Park near Winslow, Arizona

Is this the depiction of a triangular aerial craft, a version of the Hopi paatuwvota, or "flying shield"?

Vesica Piscis, Homol'ovi IV, near Winslow, Arizona


Cottonwood Creek Ruin near Winslow, Arizona

White Crown of Upper Egypt

Is the figure on the right an Egyptian hedjet crown (front toward bottom), or is this just a coincidence?

Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona

Is this a blue heron stabbing a human? Note the pyramid shape below and to the left. Compare this with the phoenix sitting atop the benben stone at Heliopolis in Egypt.

Perry Mesa, Agua Fria National Monument, Arizona

Is this petroglyph symbolic of Orion, with the upper portion representing the belt stars and the lower portion the sword?

Symbol of Baal on offering table
c. 1300 BC
Hazor, Canaan (Israel)

Star with bird feet and tail, c. 1300 AD Petroglyph National Monument, New Mexico

Baal was the Phoenican god of rain, thunder, and lightning. Joshua burned down the city of Hazor, "the head of all those kingdoms," c. 1200 BCE. (Joshua 11: 10-13)

The petroglyph to the right may represent the eye of Sotuknang, the ancient Hopi sky god.


Go to National Parks Service web page re. El Morro National Monument in northwestern New Mexico. This is a major petroglyph site of both the prehistoric and the historic periods. (Read another article.)

"Ogam [or Ogham] is an alphabet, not a language, and it was used to render the Old Irish, the Pictish, the old Gaelic of Scotland and some other dialects such as Icelandic or Old Norse of the Shetlands and Orkneys, chiefly on tombstones but also occasionally in manuscripts and engraved brooches." Dr. Barry Fell ["A Response to Criticism: An Interview with Barry Fell," Marshall Payn, Exploring Rock Art, edited by Donald L. Cyr (Santa Barbara, California: Stonehenge Viewpoint, 1989, 1986), p. 78]

Ogam (?) surrounded by Egyptian-style cartouche,
El Morro National Monument, New Mexico

Any ogam experts out there? Please let us know if you have any ideas what this might mean. Email Gary David,  Thank you. The inverted "V" glyph to the left may be the Egyptian determinative for "to walk." (E.A.Wallis Budge, Egyptian Language: Early Lessons in Egyptian Hieroglyphics (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1983, reprint 1910), p. 34.]

Larger view of panel with ogam to the left

Stylized ogam?

This vertical stemmed ogam possibly spells F-D (marks on the right represent F, marks on left represent D). Old ogam (800-300 BC) lacks vowels, so this word is actually fad, meaning "distance."
[Source: Barry Fell, America B.C. Ancient Settlers in the New World (New York: Demeter Press, 1977, 1976) p. 194.] Has the actual distance number been rubbed out for some reason? Script at lower left of photo may be signatures of emigrants, but further research is needed to establish this.

Sun shield, swastika, and possible ogam letter
with snake superimposed

On lower right within curve of snake (or water glyph), the shorter horizontal line attached to the vertical line may designate M, or the Celtic term Mo, which means "elder, senior." [Source: Fell, ibid., p. 52, pp. 194-5]

Petroglyph of female, Homolovi State Park

This petroglyph near Winslow, Arizona carved probably about the late thirteenth century shows a female with poli’ini, or butterfly hair whorls (sometimes misdesignated as squash blossoms) on each side of her head. This photo link to the Cline Library Image Database at Northern Arizona University shows an early twentieth century young Hopi maiden from the First Mesa village of Sichomovi with the same characteristic hair style. These hair whorls or disks were sometimes represented by the Maltese cross, a symbol of fertility or virginity. (Both whorls from each side of the head are laid across each other at right angles to form the cross.) Of course, the Maltese cross is a Knights Templar emblem. In Mexico it is known as the Cross of Quetzalcoatl. It also occurs on pottery from the fourth millennium found at Susa, the capital of Elam (the biblical Shushan in present-day western Iran).

Petroglyph at Cottonwood Creek Ruin near Winslow, Arizona
(See article titled "Mystery Mesa" on this Web site.)

At the far left is the alchemical symbol of Venus. Above that are three circles connected by two horizontal straight lines. In his book The Rocks Begin to Speak, LeVan Martineau (Las Vegas: KC Publications, Inc. 1994,1973) states that two circles connected by a line signifies communication. Perhaps three circles suggest communication between the three figures to the right. Martineau also believes that zoomorphs do not necessarily represent horned animals but may instead connote direction. In this case the horns on the animal are pointed downward toward the snake. Does this mean that the three figures made a journey to the Underworld or spirit world?



from a 1989 article by Dr. Ali Akbar Bushiri
of Bahrain University,
published in Volume 18 of ESOP
(Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications)

Crescent on a vertical staff
with a circle or crescent at the bottom
Thanks to Steven Bartholomew
from his article "Phoenicians in Utah" on his Web site

The fact that this petroglyph (left) appears on the top of the same panel that has a Venus alchemical symbol reinforces the notion that this icon represents Inanna, goddess of fertility and love in Sumer and Dilmun (or Tilmun, now called Bahrain). Note what appears to be a triad of three natural holes above and slightly to the right of the petroglyph. Although inverted from the usual position shown in Dr. Bushiri's work (right) to represent "mountain," this triangle of holes may mean the same thing.

. The ET-like figure on the left is possibly Masau’u, Hopi god of death and the Underworld, holding hands with a human. The figure on the right may be a Soyoko (Ogre) Katsina, who has a snout with sharp teeth and a baton or bow in his left hand. This along with the Hu (Giant) Katsina found in Hopi cosmology point to the possibility that "giants in the earth" (Genesis 6:4) roamed northern Arizona.

Petroglyph of spirals and three-pronged truncheon
Homolovi State Park, Arizona
The sai origianted in Japan
but was also used in China.

Although the recent Hollywood movie "The Mummy Returns" shows two scantily clad female combatants of ancient Egypt using trident-like truncheons, this weapon is actually of Japanese origin. The sai is a blunt martial arts weapon used to deflect swords but may have developed from a farming implement employed to make furrows.

This petroglyph from northern Arizona shows the spiral on the left touching the instrument, its power continuing across the line to the spiral on the right. In rock writing the spiral represents a whirlpool or whirlwind but it also signifies a portal, vortex or interdimensional space of numinous influence.
A counterclockwise spiral refers to descending movement while a clockwise spiral means ascension. Perhaps the spiral on the left energizes the instrument whose origin is the Underworld. On the right-hand side the line of force dips (energy pauses?) before rising to the Earth's surface (the carved circle touching the arc at about a two o'clock position).

For more on a possible Japanese-American Indian connection, see The Zuni Enigma by Nancy Yaw Davis (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000).



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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#7 [url]

Mar 25 13 9:15 AM

An Amazing History of Turkey Mtn.

An ancient cave at Turkey Mtn

To get the full history of ancient carvings arounf the Oklahoma area click here.

The Bearded Profile

A second chance to explore the Turkey Mountain area occurred on New Year's Day of 1976. The last day of 1975 was a warm and sunny 70o Fahrenheit, and the promise of assistance from a group of college students was heard. During the night the temperature dropped to 20o. Nevertheless, the next morning at the meeting place was one young man, Bart Torbert. Considerate and respectful, Torbert was to assist me ably many times during the coming years.

In order to drive as close to the site as possible, the car was parked in a private lot of the city sewage plant, not knowing that this was forbidden. Later we found a sign on the windshield threatening a tow-away. Meanwhile, bundled to our ears and carrying paper, crayons, a gallon of liquid latex (labeled "Do not allow to freeze"), and a paint brush, we walked down the track to a point where there was more distance between the track and the cliffs.

We were hunting the profile of a man's head. As sketched by Coover, it featured a long pointed beard. When we found it, about 15 feet high on the cliff, Torbert managed to make a latex mold only because he was 6 feet 4 inches tall and stood on rocks (Fig. 3-14). Deeply pecked, the head measured 17 inches high and 25 inches long. The man wore a softly-folded headdress like a snood, his nose was in a straight line with his forehead, his chin receded, and his pointed beard was absurdly long. I had seen such a profile before, but on this day I could not remember where.


Fig. 3-14 Pecked profile, Turkey Mountain, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Gwen the Linguist

Below the petroglyph of the face was a space where a huge slab of stone had split away from the cliff, forming a hallway about 3 feet wide. Pecked on the inner wall were the legends, "LOS CAVE" and "Bad Dog." We turned our attention to an inscription on the cliff to the left of the profile, at chest height. It consisted of vertical lines which intersected a horizontal stemline formed by a deep natural crack. Below were three symbols which looked like the English letters "PIA."(Fig. 3-15). I was reasonably certain that the top line formed Ogam script, and I suspected that the three capital letters might also be ancient script because of the shape of the "A" (see Appendix A, page 469).

Turkey Carving

Fig. 3-15 Bilingual autograph of Gwen, Turkey Mountain, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

As usual, the tracing of this inscription was sent to Fell. He replied, "The Ogam script is 'G-W-N,' meaning 'Gwen' or 'Gwynn,' masculine form of 'Fair,' one of the commonest Celtic names and equivalent to the English 'White.'" He also said concerning the letters "P-I-A," "I think this must be modern initials."

To this I replied, "Look again! The lettering is all of the same age, pecked with the same tool, and this is not a Roman 'A.' The crossbar is bent down like the Iberic form of the letter." Soon a note was received from Fell saying:

"Congratulations again. Your second sense for antiquity triumphs. Upon your repeated urging to think about 'PIA' again, I find that this is a fine bilingual. 'P I A = Pa-ya-a = White' in Punic."

The latex mold which was later made and sent to Fell was photographed and used in his book America B.C. Fell wrote:

"Gwynn, an early Celtic explorer, put his autograph in two languages on a rock face on Turkey Mountain near Tulsa, Oklahoma. The inscription below the Ogam, reading from left to right, are the North Iberian letters, 'Pa-ya-a,' spelling a Punic word that also means 'white.' The date of the inscription is perhaps around 500 B.C."

Three years later I received a telephone call from the Tulsa Police Department, informing me that I was being prosecuted for stealing Tulsa's rock! Astounded, I asked, "What rock?" and was told that it was the one published in the book, America B.C. I said, "Sir, the inscription is on a cliff and the cliff is still there." The caller apologized.

In light of Fells's verification in 1976 that a Celt from Iberia had stood at the site, the profile with the long beard was reconsidered. In searching references I found a dimly-remembered illustration with the chart of the Iberic alphabet, in Volume 2 of David Diringer's The Alphabet. On a jagged fragment of an excavated vase from Liria, Spain, rode two Iberian horsemen, both wearing snood-like headdresses and both with the same receding chins and prominent noses in line with their foreheads. One of them had a long pointed beard (Fig. 3-16).

Turkey Pet3

Fig. 3-16 Comparison to Fig. 2-14: Profiles of Iberian Horsemen. Redrawn from Diringer.

Was there the portrait of an Iberian on a Tulsa cliff? The profile was pecked in rather a crude manner. So was the "LOS CAVE" and "BAD DOG." It was rumored that in the 1920's a hobo had lived at the site in a shelter he had made. There were gouges at the entrance to the narrow hallway as if someone had hung a gate. There were notches cut in the top of the slab and also into the cliff opposite as if someone had laid boards across for a roof. Had a hobo named LOS pecked the profile? Latex molds of all the petroglyphs concerned indicate that a different tool was used for the profile, than was used for the "LOS CAVE" and "BAD DOG" inscriptions.

Zarya the Farmer

My assistants Shuller and Murphy happened to be students at universities in Tulsa during the spring of 1976. They explored Turkey Mountain and reported more inscriptions, one of which was on top of the slab of stone which stood upright by the profile and the Gwen bilingual. I had to see what they found.

The day we scheduled to go to the site was rainy and turned into a deluge as we walked down the track. With us also was Harold Arter, a co-worker. Our cameras were useless. Who could take photographs with water running over the lens?

Upon reaching the upright slab, we noted that it was 12 feet tall on the inner side but had a 30-foot drop-off on the side toward the track. It was about 3 feet wide on top. Our intention was to get me onto the top to inspect an inscription that Murphy had described. But how?

Shuller had a plan. Since Murphy was young and slightly built, he could be boosted part way. He would scramble up first. Shuller, being 6 feet 3 inches tall, made a good step-ladder; he would stand against the slab. Then came the tricky part: I would climb onto a 6-inch shelf of stone protruding from the cliff side opposite the slab. From the shelf, I would step across onto Shuller's shoulders. Then Murphy would pull me up. This plan was carefully considered. I was wearing heavy hiking boots, a man's raincoat, a plastic head scarf, and gloves which I took off to wring out while water ran off my nose and chin and cascaded behind my glasses. Why not try? Soon I was on top. How could the slanting surface be slick with mud?

On a later trip, I studied the inscription more carefully. It is always frustrating to find an inscription damaged by vandalism, or by natural weathering. Obviously, this can make an inscription difficult or even impossible to read, even though a careful and correct copy is submitted to the translator. This is a price we often pay in the search for ancient writing. Here the symbols on top of the slab had been spalled by the elements.

The inscription consists of three lines (Fig. 3-17). Above the rectangle are three letters, the first of which is spalled in the center, and an arrow pointing up-river. Within the rectangle are either nine or ten symbols, with the first and third broken off at the top. The fourth, or fourth and fifth, are problematical. Working within these limitations, Fell stated that the top three letters, read from right to left, are a name in Iberian Punic: "Z-r-A," or "Zarya." The meaning is "farmer," the same meaning as the English name "George." Fell also stated that an Iberian king who left his record in New York has this same name. The letters within the rectangle are also Iberian Punic, reading from right to left "K- -s -r-p-i-," or "continue on this way." This would relate to the pointing arrow mentioned above. Two other letters on a slant below, with one intersecting the bottom line of the rectangle, are the Numidian letters "s(z)o-h," meaning "continue on." Thus, the inscription is bilingual, according to Fell.

More directional markers are found to the south, or downriver. There Shuller and Murphy had found a carved boulder slanted against another stone and the bank, as if forming an entrance to a shelter. Two symbols there resemble windows: the first with two horizontal panes, the second with two vertical panes. Fell thought the first had been intended to be a symbol resembling the numeral "8," distorted to a more easily carved squarish form. If this is correct, the symbol might transliterate to "s-b," meaning "go on" or "keep traveling."

Turkey Pet 4

Fig. 3-17 Autograph of Zarya and bilingual message deciphered by Fell, Turkey Mountain, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Sturdy and Zeb

Shuller and Murphy had also found another inscribed boulder. It was above and near the first large boulder by the railroad track. The 32-inch inscription on the large, knee-high boulder consisted of several letters, each 4 to 5 inches high. It may have been made by the same person who carved the message near the tracks, as one of the symbols repeats the bisected oval found there.

The symbols in the inscription are grouped like letters forming words. One group consists of three letters: a backward "L," the bisected oval, and a straight vertical line with a straight branch to the right (Fig. 3-18). Fell stated that if intended for the slightly different Iberian Punic "w-t-d," read right to left, the word would mean "Sturdy," a man's name.

Turkey Pet 5

Fig. 3-18 Possible autograph of Sturdy and Zeb, Turkey Mountain, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Transliteration and translation by Fell.

To the right of these letters and slightly higher on the stone, are two symbols which at first glance resemble the numerals "2" and "9." But the "2" is not like our Arabic numeral "2," and the "9" is not closed and the stem is curved far to the left. Fell stated that if not the numeral "2," then it may be the Iberian Punic, read right to left, "z-b," or "Zeb," as in "Zebedee," a common Semitic name meaning "Gift (of God)."

There are bold diagonal slashes above each group of letters. Although their meaning is not understood, Fell and I think that the slashes suggest that both groups were made at the same time, and that the last group is not a modern numeral.

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#8 [url]

Mar 25 13 9:18 AM

1.gif the Concord MagazineNovember '98

Sacred Landscapes: Prehistoric or Not? Part 3

By Peter Waksman, a Concord resident with a passion for prehistory, tramping through the woods, and wondering who used them before recorded history. Part 3 of 3. See Part 1 here; Part 2 here.

(click on the photos for an enlarged view)

In this last part of the series, we will visit a site of a petroglyph in the form of Ogham in Concord, Stone Turtle effigies in Acton and Lincoln, and the Sacred Spring with Two Cups in Littleton.


Petroglyph in Concord in the Form of Ogham
After reading that there were traces of Ogham writing in New England I started keeping an eye out for scratched rocks. Ogham was a writing system used in Bronze age Europe and Britain, based on groups of vertical lines crossing a long horizontal base line. Different numbers of verticals in a group or whether the group was above, below or across the baseline, determines which letter is represented by the group. Ogham came in many forms and appears to have been used by such people as the Celts in Western Europe and Britain, the people of Troy, and by other seagoing people whose God was "Bel" or "Baal". Examples of Ogham also have been found in Japan and in Africa, and very clear examples have been found on the east coast of America and along its larger river systems. For the most part, the languages written in Ogham and the variants of the alphabet are known and it is sometimes possible to read Ogham inscriptions. A search on the Web for "Ogham" turns up plenty of sites on the subject.

Sure enough, there is a Petroglyph in Concord in the form of Ogham (top right). This example comes from the woods around Hanscom field. The grooves are uniform in depth and width, with a shallow "U" cross section, but I had to put water on them to make them visible, a somewhat suspect procedure. Normally, engraving like this can only be seen when the light comes in just right from the side.

Here is a closer view (second photo, right) -- and you can see that the added water started to drip. Following a version of the alphabet given in The White Goddess by Robert Graves, I came up with 'C', 'H', 'B', 'N' for the first four main strokes, but could not make anything of the way the message is divided along the ridge of the rock into a separate line of strokes. In one reference book, the small cross below the left end of the horizontal is identified as a symbol for "moon".

Someday perhaps an expert in deciphering Ogham can make something out of this. The presence of Ogham in America is highly controversial so let us leave it at this: there are petroglyphs here in Concord that could be Ogham.


Stone Turtle Effigies, Acton and Lincoln
Some rocks in the woods remind you of an animal or a face. Here is a Stone Turtle on Acton Conservation land (top right). Rocks with a prominent head like this are called "Turtles" because of the importance of the turtle in Native American creation myths. This figure looks more like a ram. It is four feet long and faces north. There is every reason to believe Native Americans would have been sensitive to unusual rocks like this. Many of them may be natural, but the ones pictured here have some breakage around the "head" suggesting that nature was enhanced deliberately (second from top, right).

Here is another Stone Turtle from Lincoln (third and fourth from top, right). To get there, walk in along the fire road across Rt. 2 from Orchard Road, take the first left: it is within 100 yards. Although these figures stretch credibility, the purpose is not to convince but to suggest that such figures may have had a ceremonial meaning in the past.

At Great Brook Farm in Carlisle, there are supposed to be several large stone turtles and here is a link to a Website with an interesting tobacco offering stone in Connecticut under the topic "Connecticut Bear Stone" in the table of contents.


A Sacred Spring with Two Cups
The less I say about this location the better. It is in Littleton, deep in the woods at the end of a path. As you walk you follow the edge of a swamp, and the verge of the water is continuously outlined by a stone wall. In the woods behind and to the side are other walls (first right).

Finally, the walls all converge at the head of the swamp where a lovely spring of water goes over a six inch waterfall. The water is cool and astringent. This site is still in use as a sacred location, because someone left two green plastic cups, suspended in the tree above the spring, and the trail ends here (the lower cup is slightly right and above center in the picture). If you magnify the picture you can see a bald spot in the moss of one of the rocks left of center. This is where you must step. As you stand over the spring to drink, other foot positions are outlined in the moss. If the persons using the spring read this, I hope they will forgive the intrusion.

Now, as you head back along the trail you notice a stone embrasure, isolated from other walls (bottom photo). Is this something for practical use: marking a corner where all other boundaries (we assume) are already marked with full stone walls? Or is this something else? We do not seek the answer very strenuously, but return to the car. Another mystery to explore on another day.


To find out more about sacred sites in New England, visit, or read Manitou - The Sacred Landscape of New England's Native Civilization by James Mavor and Byron Dix.ding8.gif

(part 3 of 3....see part 1 and Part 2.)
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The details are important in the photos below; click on each for an enlarged view.
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Text and photos: ©1998 Peter Waksman.
Background: Andrea Menna Taylor
Other Images: Hee Yun's Little Home.

This website is a gift to the Concord community from Hometown Websmith, a full-service Internet marketing company. 978 369-0113. PO Box 285 - Concord, MA 01742 [email protected]

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#9 [url]

Mar 25 13 9:24 AM

This essay has been published in Volume 10, Number 61 of Ancient American.  (March 2005.)  A brief addendum follows the article posted here. 




Steve Bartholomew

This is a report on two Ogam stones in Northern California.  One is secret, the other is not.  One is in danger, the other is safe.  I will tell you how to find one, but not the other.  Both are equally ancient, equally sacred, equally mysterious. 

The first part of this essay is actually a follow-up to an article of mine published in Ancient American, Volume IV issue #27.  That article concerned a stone usually referred to as “Baby Rock” and located in Lake County, California, not far from Clear Lake.  At the time we examined this first stone, it was clear that Ogam script covered nearly all available surfaces.  However, there was one prominent petroglyph on top of the stone the like of which I had seen nowhere else.  Because of its compass orientation, there was good reason to think it might be a summer solstice marker.  However, this idea had not yet been verified at the time the previous article was published. 

For those not familiar with the Ogam controversy:  Ogam is an alphabet originally made on notched sticks as well as carved on stone.  Conventional scholars continue to insist that Ogam was invented by the Irish during Roman times.  This belief flies in the face of overwhelming evidence of its use on the European Continent and elsewhere millennia before the Romans.  Ogam is probably one of the oldest forms of writing on Earth:  Dr Barry Fell was able to show how closely it is related to Hittite cuneiform.[1] 

Ogam script is usually composed of vertical lines across a horizontal baseline; or it may be drawn vertically with horizontal lines across a vertical base.  The Celts wrote horizontal Ogam from left to right, but there is a Semitic form found on the Iberian peninsula and in North Africa, written from right to left.  There are several criteria we use to determine whether a petroglyph is genuine Ogam or merely random scratches on a rock.  One is the presence of a baseline, which is sometimes only implied by the relative positions of other strokes.  A second determinative is the number of strokes present and their grouping.  An Ogam letter may include from one to five strokes.  If there are six or more strokes in one group I would rule it out as writing (though it could indicate a number). 

Most important is the presence of syntax.  Is it possible to put the letters together so they make sense?  If I see the same group of letters repeated several times in one location, I assume that the writer was endeavoring to communicate a definite, symbolic meaning and not just making random scratches. 

Our Ogam stone #1 easily fulfilled all these criteria.  For example, in one area we find the letters “L-G” repeated over and over.  This could indicate the Celtic Lugh, god of light.  This would be appropriate for a solstice observatory, which the artifact is in fact.  Also noted is what appears to be the Druidic “awen” sign, in several places.   


"G-L" and Awen symbols

This stone has been referred to as “Baby Rock,” since it was supposedly used in Pomo fertility rituals.  (Pomo Indians have continuously occupied this area for the past 10,000 years.)  The fertility story may or may not be valid, but it was certainly an observatory.

The only way we could check on this theory was to go to the stone’s location on June 21, Summer Solstice, and observe the sunrise.  I realized I could insert a small twig (or in this case, a pencil) into the hole in the center of the petroglyph referred to earlier. 


Summer Solstice Sunrise

On the morning of Solstice, a shadow cast by the stick exactly reaches to the end of the triangular pointer below it.  Note that this does not happen until after 8:30 a.m.  Although sunrise is much earlier, the sun does not actually clear the hill to the east, and cast a shadow, until then. 

What I had failed to realize at first was that this glyph is not only a marker for solstice sunrise – it also works at sunset!  There is a second pointer above the circle.  At sunset on June 21, a shadow cast by the inserted stick almost exactly reaches the end of the upper pointer.(2)  This is a double verification of the purpose of this petroglyph, which occupies the most prominent position on the stone.  


Solstice Sunset

Further, notice there is another line in each of the triangular pointers which goes across, dividing them in two.  I was puzzled by this line, until I watched the stick shadow gradually lengthen as the sun just touched the horizon.  At this point, if the inserted stick is the correct length, its shadow will meet the perpendicular line. 

As the sun finally sinks below the visible horizon, the stick’s shadow just reaches the tip of the pointer.  In other words, the area between the line and the tip defines the apparent diameter of the sun. 

Why was this detail important to the ancient astronomers who invented this device?  I can’t answer that question, but evidently it was important.   

I therefore refer to this artifact as “Solstice Rock,” which name I believe adequately justified.  Aside from the Solstice indicator, there are a number of other petroglyphs with probable astronomical functions.  One is a “star” formation which seems to point to the four cardinal directions as well as the four cross-quarter points.  As far as I know, this artifact is absolutely unique in the United States; there is nothing else exactly like it. 

Solstice Rock is located on private property in Lake County.  It is not protected by any Government or institution.  It’s situated on the bank of a seasonal creek which is gradually eroding.  The owners and neighbors do their best to preserve it by not broadcasting its existence to tourists, which is why I am not more specific about its location.  I can only hope that someday Solstice Rock will be properly studied by those capable of understanding it – while it still exists.

                                         *               *               * 

The second artifact I will discuss, I refer to as the “Willits Rock.”  Its existence and location are no secret.  Anyone can go and look.  Personally, I have spent many a long, hot day in the countryside peering at rocks, looking for possible ancient writing.  The only reason I did not “discover” this one earlier is that no one told me it was there.

The Willits Rock is located outside the front door of the Willits Museum, in Mendocino County.  A plaque next to it acknowledges that it was donated to the museum in 1972 by the Hansen Ranch.  The museum itself was opened in that same year. 


The Willits Rock

Willits is a small town located about fifty miles from Solstice Rock, in the neighboring county.  Originally both Lake and Mendocino Counties were territory of the Pomo Indians.  The plaque referred to above identifies the rock only as “Pomo petroglyphs.” 

This stone is somewhat smaller than Solstice Rock, but appears to be composed of the same type of hard andesite – or so I thought at first.  At some point in its history it has broken through the middle – probably decades ago, judging by the degree of erosion. 

The Willits stone has prominent Ogam style script, but only on one side.  The other side is occupied by a large number of cupules, small round depressions which are a typical trademark of West Coast Native Americans.  No one knows the meaning of these shallow depressions, except for the fact that they probably had some ritual purpose.  (To me, the surface of the rock resembles a large, pock-marked meteorite, but I’m assured it isn’t one!)

I asked the museum curator for any information regarding this stone.  She could tell me only that it came from the Hansen Ranch, which is located somewhere to the east of town. 

It was at this point I encountered another annoying but ubiquitous obstacle to scholarly research – lack of public funds.  I asked the curator if I could examine any documents relating to the stone’s original location and position – with photographs if possible.  I was told the museum would be happy to oblige, but I might have to wait several months for an appointment to use the document files.  This delay is due to shortage of staff and impending reorganization. 

Nevertheless, I did fill out an application for an appointment.  (You have to complete the paperwork to see the paperwork!)  I am interested in learning if the Willits rock had any particular astronomical orientation – bearing in mind the functions of our Lake County rock.  Information may or may not be on file somewhere – archeology is often more a matter of digging through files than digging through dirt. 

I found this rock extremely difficult to photograph.  This is because of a shade tree which blocks the sun and casts speckled shadows all over the rock’s surface.  In fact, my first observation was on an overcast day, and due to poor contrast I failed to note a number of important details.  For example, I at first failed to see the baseline of the three prominent vertical strokes at the front. 

You will recall that one of my criteria for identification of Ogam is the presence of a baseline.  In this case, the line is eroded and faint, but definitely present.  This fact identifies those three strokes as the letters “L-B,” in Ogam.   



Dr Barry Fell has pointed out that this is the Semitic form of the name Baal, an ancient sun god, written right to left. 

Another interesting detail, and one that makes me suspect an astronomical meaning, is one of the round cupules located near the edge of the Ogam area.  This one has three vertical lines extending from its lower edge, giving it the shape of a comet – or the sun with descending rays.  Just to the right is the letter “L,” inscribed vertically.  


The three lines below the cupule form the letter “L-B,” turning it into a rebus.  A rebus, of course, is a picture formed with letters which spell the name of the picture.  In this case we have the ancient sun god Bel, or Baal, spelled right to left, in the Semitic style.  The circular cupule therefore represents the sun.  And just to the right is the prominent letter “L.”

There is only one word in modern Irish or Old Gaelic which can be spelled with the single letter “L.”  (The older form of Ogam usually included no vowels.)  This word is “la,” written with an accent in English letters. 

“La” turns out to be an Indo-European cognate related to a Sanskrit word, “latha”; the most common meaning in several different languages is “to shine.”  In modern Irish the meaning is “day.”  “La” is related to English “light.” 

Thus, our unknown rock writer did his best to make sure we understand his meaning.  He draws a picture of the sun, with the name of Bel.  So that we don’t miss it, he repeats the name “Bel” above, and the word “shine” to the right.  Thus, the three glyphs have the meaning “sunshine!”

Unfortunately, it seems that most of the thousands of people who have looked at this book in stone have missed its meaning.  The bronze plaque on the ground reads simply, “Pomo petroglyphs.”

There are other glyphs here which I do not understand.  There is, for example, a vertical line with a curve starting from its top and descending to the right.  I suspect this may have some astronomical meaning, or it may be a map. 


I find all these ancient glyphs extremely difficult to study.  I have found that photographing a particular glyph from two slightly different angles may reveal different details.  Often I may miss something with the naked eye which later appears obvious in a photograph – or I may find it nearly impossible to photograph something I can easily see. 

I’m not sure of the mineral composition of the Willits rock, but some parts of the surface look like marble or possibly obsidian.  It’s an extremely hard type of rock.  Given its advanced state of weathering it must be quite old.  How did Ogam writing arrive in California in some remote past age?  I have no idea.  It is a mystery.  I can only hope that with further study by qualified scholars, it may not remain a complete mystery forever. 


For my final  (?) word on Solstice Rock, look here.

horizontal rule

[1] Epigraphic Society Occasional Publications, Volume 13, 1984.

[2]  The alignment is not quite exact, a problem which I will address in the following article. 





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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#11 [url]

Mar 25 13 9:38 AM

something is or it isn't there...denial is the first proof of existence...

Cave Skeleton Is European, 1,300 Years Old
Sunday Gazette Mail ^ | 9-29-2002 | Rick Steelhammer

Posted on Mon Sep 30 17:47:50 2002 by blam

Cave skeleton is European, 1,300 years old, man says
Archaeologist group wants a look at evidence

Sunday September 29, 2002

By Rick Steelhammer

MORGANTOWN — The man who first advanced the theory that markings carved on in a Wyoming County cave are actually characters from an ancient Irish alphabet has found human remains at the site, which tests indicate are European in origin and date back to A.D. 710, he maintains.

Robert Pyle of Morgantown says that a DNA analysis of material from the skeleton’s teeth roots was conducted by Brigham Young University. That analysis, he says, shows that the skeleton’s DNA, when compared to samples from Native American groups and an array of European sources, most closely matches samples from the British Isles.

Pyle says the DNA test, plus a radiocarbon test that dates the skeleton to 710, suggest the presence of a European visitor to the North American continent nearly 800 years before the arrival of Columbus, and nearly 300 years before Viking Leif Erickson.

Found near the skeleton was a bone needle etched with markings similar to those on the cave walls.

Pyle says his findings and the test results help validate his hypothesis that the markings at the Wyoming County site “were done by seafaring people, probably monks, probably from the British Isles.”

“Based on the available data, that’s doubtful,” counters Robert Maslowski, president of the Council for West Virginia Archaeology, a state association of professional archaeologists with research interests in West Virginia.

Pyle’s findings, Maslowski says, while “interesting,” still need “to be examined by the professional community. We would welcome the opportunity to go over the evidence — to look at the skeletal material, the archaeological material, the radiocarbon data and the DNA data, then draw our own conclusions,” he says.

Pyle, who performed archaeological surveys for the state Division of Highways in late 1970s and early 1980s, does not have a degree in archaeology. He says he is a federally certified archaeologist who has studied the subject at Northwestern University, and has taken geology courses at WVU.

He says he would be interested in having another group examine his work, including additional DNA and Carbon-14 testing, which he paid for using privately raised funds totaling about $7,000.

He also wants to raise money to preserve the site and continue his research.

Pyle first visited the cave, known as the Cook petroglyph site, in 1981, while in the area to conduct archeological surveys for the DOH.

“I was visiting my sister when someone mentioned some Indian scratchings on the top of a nearby ridge,” he said.

When he arrived at the site, “I saw an elongated group of markings along the right side,” he recalls. “I’d just read a book on Norse runes, and my first thought was that these were archaic runes.”

He later read about carvings found in Ireland and Wales, usually on the edges of grave markers, that made use of an ancient Celtic alphabet of connected lines and slashes known as Ogam.

Joined by Dr. William Grant of Edinburgh University in Scotland and Dr. John Grant of Oakland, Md., both Celtic linguists who had studied at Catholic University in Washington, D.C., Pyle continued to study the Wyoming County carvings, plus similar markings near Dingess in Mingo County and in Manchester, Ky., eventually hypothesizing that they were Ogam.

In the 1980s, Wonderful West Virginia magazine ran a series of stories about the Wyoming County site and the carvings, and their links to Ogam.

In 1989, West Virginia Archaeologist Magazine published an issue devoted to debunking that theory. Editor Janet Brashler, then an archaeologist for the Monongahela National Forest, concluded that the “turkey foot” patterns carved in the rock are design elements “in common with other acknowledged prehistoric Native American petroglyphs.”

Pyle maintains the carvings contain crosses, rebuses and other markings unique to Ogam.

He traveled to Ireland to study the markings in 1998, and in 2000, was invited to take part in the examination of a newly found 8-feet-high, 20-feet-long Irish Ogam petroglyph panel, which closely resembles the Wyoming County markings. The latter visit to Ireland was filmed for a public television special.

Pyle says his findings and the recent test results will make it possible to validate a hypothesis “I didn’t think it would be possible to validate in a lifetime.”

He says he expected his findings to generate controversy.

“That’s science,” he says. “No one totally, 100 percent endorses a new idea. ... I’ll let science decide where to go from here. But I would like to have credit for this discovery.”

“We know the Vikings were here before him, but I wouldn’t stop celebrating Columbus Day, yet,” Maslowski says. “Hopefully, we’ll be able to go over the findings and have this resolved by the end of October — West Virginia Archaeology Month.”

Pyle plans to post his findings on the Internet at The site already contains material on Ogam and the West Virginia petroglyphs.

To contact staff writer Rick Steelhammer, use e-mail or call 348-5169.

TOPICS: News/Current Events
KEYWORDS: 1; 300; archaeology; barryfell; cave; european; ggg; godsgravesglyphs; history; old; skeleton; years
Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.
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Click and go to the site for pictures. I couldn't get them to transfer.
1 posted on Mon Sep 30 17:47:50 2002 by blam

To: blam
An archaeology BTT. Could be a big one, another amateur scooping the pros. Will watch this one...

"Faith, Paddy, now doesn't 'Missoula' sound loik a foin Oirish name?"

2 posted on Mon Sep 30 17:54:52 2002 by Billthedrill

To: LostTribe
May be one of your lost sheep?
3 posted on Mon Sep 30 17:55:17 2002 by blam

To: blam

That's funny....I thought ^THIS^ was the only 1300 yr old skeleton in the U.S., and he's from W. Virginia.

4 posted on Mon Sep 30 17:57:20 2002 by hispanarepublicana

To: blam

Robert Pyle

5 posted on Mon Sep 30 17:57:54 2002 by blam

To: RightWhale

Bone Needle

6 posted on Mon Sep 30 17:59:48 2002 by blam

To: blam
This is Wyoming County West Virginia, right?
7 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:01:32 2002 by RoughDobermann

To: vannrox; JudyB1938; #3Fan
"Faith, Paddy, now doesn't 'Missoula' sound loik a foin Oirish name?"

I may see Barry Fell and Gloria Farley vindicated in my life time. That would be nice.

8 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:01:46 2002 by blam

To: blam
One of the Irish monks, no doubt.
9 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:03:57 2002 by RightWhale

To: RoughDobermann
"This is Wyoming County West Virginia, right?"

With closer reading, it does look that way, thanks. No less significant, huh?

10 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:04:10 2002 by blam

To: blam
Interesting article. Could our whole understanding of pre-Columbian America be completely wrong?
11 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:05:54 2002 by Notforprophet

To: blam
Well, I'd argue that while it will be amazing if true in WV, it would be far more amazing if they managed to get all the way to present-day Wyoming! Thanks for the post. Very interesting!!
12 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:07:30 2002 by RoughDobermann

To: Notforprophet
13 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:11:01 2002 by blam

To: Heuristic Hiker
Interesting ping.
14 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:11:42 2002 by Utah Girl

To: Notforprophet
15 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:13:42 2002 by blam

To: Notforprophet
Interesting article. Could our whole understanding of pre-Columbian America be completely wrong?

There's nothing too improbable about people sailing from Britain to North America the same way the Vikings are recorded as having done so. Rest stops at Iceland and Greenland, and then go down the Canadian coast, maybe sail up the St Lawrence.

16 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:15:48 2002 by SauronOfMordor

To: blam
This cannot be permitted to get wide circulation in academia and the media. The leftist movement depends on fostering perpetual guilt in the white middle class in order to garner timid acquiescence with confiscatory taxation.

The notion that whites stole the land and killed off the Indians is important for maintaining that guilt.

Since the end justifies the means....this man and his findings must be defamed, hidden, or lied about.

17 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:17:37 2002 by quebecois

To: blam
...archeological surveys for the DOH.


18 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:18:46 2002 by Doomonyou

To: blam
Yeah, that's the Irish for you. The guy ties one on in Dublin and wakes up in Wyoming with his arm around a real coyote.

Probably one of the Kennedy clan. ;^)

19 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:19:59 2002 by 4Freedom

To: RightWhale
First recorded Irish Travelers in the Americas.
20 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:20:18 2002 by ErnBatavia

To: SauronOfMordor
Ogam Petroglyphs In Ireland And West Virginia

From the Prehistoric West Virginia Site.

21 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:20:49 2002 by blam

To: blam
An Irish Traveller? Toogood to be true???
22 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:23:02 2002 by null and void

To: blam
Blam, if you have a ping list for stuff like this, I'd like to be on it.

New England and Canada have suspected Viking settlements and artifacts, some I have visited, but experts say there's not enough evidence.
23 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:23:04 2002 by Lady Jag

To: blam
Elvis finally shows up.
24 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:23:55 2002 by curmudgeonII

To: blam
fascinating. if those wyoming county petroglyphs and this body are what the purport to be.It has european missionaries over in the mountians of West Virginia even long before the Vikings sailed.It will change the view of world discovery.
25 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:27:50 2002 by lexington minuteman 1775

To: blam
Hey, if the Polynesians could sail around the Pacific, getting to Australia 40,000 years ago, and continuing to cover all those island chains, there's nothing too improbable about the Europeans doing it too.
26 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:28:50 2002 by SauronOfMordor

To: sciencediet
Go Here. I don't have a 'formal' ping list.

Gods, Graves, Glyphs

27 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:31:21 2002 by blam

To: blam
Found near the skeleton was a bone needle...

European ... and he had a heroin habit, as well!
28 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:31:55 2002 by Bush2000

To: RoughDobermann
"Well, I'd argue that while it will be amazing if true in WV, it would be far more amazing if they managed to get all the way to present-day Wyoming.......

without losing their scalps.

29 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:32:38 2002 by Godebert

To: blam
The media will bury this like a cat burying sh*t. Wouldnt want to offend the indians you know.
30 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:33:09 2002 by Husker24

To: blam
Presumably he’s a registered Democrat and has voted in every election since the declaration of independence.
31 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:33:55 2002 by Flashman_at_the_charge

To: blam
May be one of your lost sheep?

Third post in a WVa thread and already a sheep joke.

32 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:34:05 2002 by putupon

To: SauronOfMordor
"Hey, if the Polynesians could sail around the Pacific, getting to Australia 40,000 years ago, and continuing to cover all those island chains, there's nothing too improbable about the Europeans doing it too."

Mungo Man

Make that 68,000 years ago.

33 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:35:01 2002 by blam

To: blam
Thanks! That looks like a lot of good reading.
34 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:36:49 2002 by Lady Jag

To: SauronOfMordor
It gets even messier.

Mungo Man VS Mitochondrial Eve

35 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:39:20 2002 by blam

To: SauronOfMordor; blam; 24Karet; LostTribe
I'd be the first to welcome a new discovery of pre-Columbian European contact with North America.

I remember Leif Erickson, and Mr. pre-Columbian monk... you're no Leif Erikson!

Bumping for undiscovered countries...

36 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:41:29 2002 by Notforprophet

To: null and void
An Irish Traveller? Toogood to be true???


37 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:43:20 2002 by Notforprophet




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38 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:43:39 2002 by Mo1

To: sciencediet
"New England and Canada have suspected Viking settlements and artifacts..."

The Viking presence at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland is well-established. This is a Norse settlement from around 1000 AD. See

Norse artifacts were also found on Baffin Island.

The visit of Prince Henry Sinclair of Orkney to the New World in 1398 is less well-established. He was of the Scottish and Norwegian nobility. The carving of the Westford Knight in Westford, Massachusetts is attributed to his voyage. Not proven but a fascinating story...
39 posted on Mon Sep 30 18:59:12 2002 by omega4412

To: blam
Must be Irish monks. The county just to the south of Wyoming County has an Erin.
40 posted on Mon Sep 30 19:01:13 2002 by Verginius Rufus

To: omega4412
Try this for info on the Runestone in Oklahoma.
41 posted on Mon Sep 30 19:05:19 2002 by Arkansawyer

To: Arkansawyer
Well the link didn't come up so here it is again:
42 posted on Mon Sep 30 19:05:58 2002 by Arkansawyer

To: blam
which tests indicate are European in origin and date back to A.D. 710, he maintains

Tourist Guy?

43 posted on Mon Sep 30 19:07:58 2002 by Cold Heat

To: blam
I knew it, I knew it. The Irish were here FIRST. Ever since I saw the mighty Kennewick Man's skull, I knew he had to be an Irishman. Now as the newly self appointed leader of this ethnic clan community, I demand JUSTICE from the federal government, I demand full reparations for all our land that was stolen, free secondary education, special job preferences, no federal income taxes and our own seat at the EEOC.

No Justice no peace. No justice no peace.

PS: We will settle for a casino and a keg of Guinness.

44 posted on Mon Sep 30 19:07:59 2002 by usurper

To: RoughDobermann
Well, I'd argue that while it will be amazing if true in WV

This doesn't pass the smell test so far as I am concerned.

Wyoming County, WV, is on the western side of the Appalachian Mt chain. The chance that unknown Europeans got there without some reasonable infrastructure is preposterous. The Europeans we know of landed at Jamestown, not too far away, in 1607. In my quick search, I didn't find any evidence of Europeans we know of getting to Western Virginia until more than a century later.


45 posted on Mon Sep 30 19:22:38 2002 by ml/nj

To: blam
46 posted on Mon Sep 30 19:25:19 2002 by Lion Den Dan

To: quebecois
The notion that whites stole the land and killed off the Indians is important for maintaining that guilt

Not only that.........

Imagine if, upon further research, it can be shown that Europeans were exploring the East Coast of North America around the same time that the Indians (who were originally Asians) were exploring the West Coast.

What would that do to the notion of "Native Americans"?

Perhaps both Europeans & Asians were ancient immigrant groups to the New World at about the same time.

47 posted on Mon Sep 30 20:11:35 2002 by Republic If You Can Keep It

To: All
Pyle's links

here (petroglyphs)


here (dna)


here (Pyle's private website)

48 posted on Mon Sep 30 20:11:55 2002 by SteveH

To: Republic If You Can Keep It
Perhaps both Europeans & Asians were ancient immigrant groups to the New World at about the same time.

Now there's a thought.

My hubby just yelled from the bedroom; "the voyages of Brendan!"

49 posted on Mon Sep 30 20:20:21 2002 by LibertarianLiz

To: Republic If You Can Keep It
"What would that do to the notion of "Native Americans"?"

There were no 'Native Americans' (as we know them today) in North America prior to 6,000 years ago. There were a number of other folks like Kennewick Man, Spirit Cave Man and Buhl Woman here 9,000+ years ago that were Ainu/Joman in origin. The Northern Chinese Asians ('Native Americans'?) came here less than 6,000 years ago. I had a 'Native American' FReeper tell me once that who-ever was here, then that's us. I can 'buy' that.

50 posted on Mon Sep 30 20:22:13 2002 by blam

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#12 [url]

Mar 25 13 9:49 AM

why all the denial: because a genocidal cover up is systemically in place?

View a Random Article →

SharePrint Petroglyphs


Archeologists distinguish between two types of prehistoric rock art, petroglyphs, images pecked or carved on rock, and pictographs, images painted on rock. West Virginia has 27 recorded Indian petroglyphs and two pictographs. Common motifs include human figures, animals, animal tracks, and geometric designs. Notable sites include Salt Rock, Cabell County; Browns Island, Hancock County; Hamilton Farm, Monongalia County; Table Rock, Timmons Farm, and Clifton Heights, Ohio County; and Ceredo and Wildcat Branch, Wayne County. The Harrison County Site is a rockshelter with a unique combination of petroglyphs and pictographs.

In 1964, Oscar Mairs and Hillis Youse recorded the Luther Elkins Site in Wyoming County. This simple Indian glyph with clusters, vertical linear and curvilinear designs, a sunburst pattern, a swastika-like pattern, and turkey tracks, became the state’s most controversial petroglyph. Barry Fell, a Harvard biologist, interpreted the clusters of lines as a Christian message written by Irish monks in the sixth century Ogam language. Heated debates between archeologists and Fell supporters ensued, with Fell’s interpretations discredited in the view of most professionals.

Most petroglyphs are assumed to date to the Late Prehistoric or Protohistoric Periods (A.D. 1200–1690). The only datable image is a six-foot shaman with weeping eye mask at Salt Rock, dated at approximately A.D. 1600. The mask motif is similar to shell masks found on protohistoric village sites. Professional archeologists believe several Ohio Valley petroglyphs were carved by Algonquians and some motifs represent the ideology and mythology of certain elements of the Ojibwa and other Algonquian tribes. The underwater panther, thunderers, serpents, tracks, and power lines are design elements common to Ojibwa mnemonic birch bark scrolls as well as West Virginia petroglyphs.

This Article was written by Robert F. Maslowski

Last Revised on October 22, 2010


Braley, Dean. Shaman's Story: The West Virginia Petroglyphs. St. Albans: St. Albans Pub., 1993.

Brashler, Janet G. An Application of the Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses to Two West Virginia Petroglyph Sites. West Virginia Archeologist, (Spring 1989).

Richardson, James B. III & James L. Swauger. The Petroglyphs Speak: Rock Art and Iroquois Origins. Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology, (1996).

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#13 [url]

Mar 25 13 9:51 AM

- Were Orthodox Celtic Monks Here in America?

Were Orthodox Celtic Monks Here in America?

By Fr. Alexey Young

For centuries it was firmly believed and taught that North America was discovered by Christopher Columbus. More recently, there has been general agreement that Norsemen or Vikings were probably on this continent around 1000 A.D. "But," as the editors of National Geographic magazine point out, "perhaps it was a group of shadowy, yet very real, Irish seafaring monks who predated even the Vikings by more than four centuries."1 Indeed, there is evidence that this may be true.

In the twentieth century a number of scholars began to suspect that the early medieval saga known as the "Voyage of Saint Brendan the Abbot" (Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis) was not a "pious fable" at all, but the narration of an actual journey - a voyage by St. Brendan and a number of monks from Ireland to the east coast of North America, complete with accounts of what we can now identify as volcanic eruptions in Iceland, an encounter with a whale, and icebergs. Initially, this interpretation was dismissed because experts doubted that anyone could have crossed the Atlantic with the kind of primitive boat or leather-hulled "curragh" known to have been used by early Irish or Celtic sailors. They doubted, that is, until, in the 1970s, the British explorer, Timothy Severin, successfully crossed the ocean in a leather boat (a duplicate of St. Brendan's craft), proving "beyond doubt that the Irish monks could have sailed their leather boats to the New World before the Norsemen, and long before Columbus ...". Equally important, this showed that St. Brendan's voyage "was no mere splendid medieval fantasy, but a highly plausible tale ... founded upon real events and real people."2

Still, there was no actual evidence to show that any Europeans had been in North America as early as the sixth century, when Brendan's "Voyage" was said to have occurred.

And then, in 1982, a petroglyph - an inscription cut in the face of a cliff or rock - in Wyoming County, West Virginia, was recorded and identified. This site had been discovered in 1964, but it was not until 1970 that an archaeologist from the West Virginia Economic and Geological Survey studied it and concluded that this petroglyph (rock-carving) was at least five to seven hundred years old, if not older, and was in marked contrast to other known petroglyphs in the area. Twelve years later a prominent archaeologist with twenty-seven years of field experience, Robert L. Pyle, took a serious interest in the petroglyph. Dr. Pyle, who has a GS-9 rating as an archaeologist from the federal government and is authorized to do archaeological work on federal projects, had no particular agenda in mind - unlike Timothy Severin, who set out to prove that a primitive Celtic craft could make a trans-Atlantic voyage; Dr. Pyle simply wanted to scientifically and objectively determine, if possible, what this particular petroglyph was all about.

A prominent authority on ancient languages and an emeritus professor at Harvard, Dr. Barry Fell, was brought into the investigation. He concluded that these petroglyphs "appear to date from the 6th-8th centuries A.D., and they are written in Old Irish language, employing an alphabet called Ogam, found also on ancient rock-cut inscriptions in Ireland ... [and in] a Dublin manuscript, known as the 'Ogam Tract,' composed by an unidentified monk in the fourteenth century."3 The first surprise came when the message was deciphered:

"At the time of sunrise, a ray grazes the notch on the left side on Christmas Day, a Feast-day of the Church, the first seven of the [Christian] year, the season of the blessed advent of the Savior, Lord Christ. Behold, He is born of Mary, a woman."4

Three Celtic Chi Rho's (the Greek letters - "X" and "R" - for Christ) also appear on this petroglyph.

The second surprise came when the investigators decided to test the inscription by calculating the Julian Calendar date for when the Feast of the Nativity would have fallen between 500 and 800 A.D. Thus, on December 22 (new style), 1982, they went to the site before dawn and watched and waited. Suddenly, as the sun came over a ridge, "a glimmer of pale sunlight struck the sun symbol on the left side of the petroglyph, and the rising sun soon bathed the entire panel in warm sunlight ... funneling through a three-sided notch formed by the rock overhang."5

Another inscription, called the Horse Creek Petroglyph (in Boone County, West Virginia), also yielded a Christian translation and the use of the Chi Rho.  Of course, further investigation and study of this fascinating subject is warranted, and important tests are pending on some artifacts found at these sites. But for now, we can say that a case is slowly but surely building for the existence of Celts - most likely monks - on this continent long before any others came from the West. This is of particular interest because Celtic Christians were also Orthodox Christians - belonging to the one, true, and universal Church of Christ before the West fell away from the Orthodox Church in the tenth century. Their spirituality, far from being the fashionable "New Age spirituality" that many of today's writers anachronistically project back on to the ancient Celts, was thoroughly Orthodox in teaching as well as monastic and ascetic in practice. Indeed, Fr. Gregory Telepneff, in his fascinating and scholarly study, The Egyptian Desert in the Irish Bogs, concludes that Celtic Christianity actually reveals "significant Coptic [i.e., Egyptian] influence of a specifically monastic kind."6

These archaeological "finds" in West Virginia and elsewhere, which seem to point to a Celtic and monastic presence on this continent more than one thousand years ago, provide an imperative for Christians (whether Orthodox or not) to examine the Orthodox West (particularly in the lives of the saints) as it was before the Great Schism. Because that authentic and rich flowering of Orthodoxy, especially in Celtic Christianity, is characterized by both asceticism and holiness, it can be as nurturing to the soul as it was to believers a millennium and more ago.


  1. "Who Discovered America? A New Look at an Old Question," National Geographic, December 1977.
  2. "The Voyage of Brendan," by Timothy Severin, ibid.
  3. "Christian Messages in Old Irish Script Deciphered from Rock Carvings in W. Va.," by Dr. Barry Fell, Wonderful West Virginia, March 1983
  4. Ibid.
  5. "Light Dawns on West Virginia History," by Ida Jane Gallagher, Wonderful West Virginia, ibid.
  6. Telepneff, Fr. Gregory, The Egyptian Desert in the Irish Bogs: The Byzantine Character of Early Celtic Monasticism, 1998

Reprinted from Orthodox Life, No. 1, 2001, pages 33-36.

Were Orthodox Celtic Monks Here in America?  (click on this link to download this document)



Several petroglyphs in Wyoming and Boone counties, West Virginia, long-identified as random Indian doodling with little message content, may actually be Celtic Ogham writing. Translations of the petroglyphs reveal several Christian messages, as in the segment illustrated below. Based upon the style of the Ogham, these petroglyphs may have been chiseled some time between the early Sixth and late Eighth centuries. The Ogham writers may have been Irish monks who, after the fashion of St. Brendan, sailed west from Europe during this period.  (Pyle, Robert L.; "A Message from the Past," p. 3. Gallagher, Ida Jane; " Light Dawns on West Virginia History," p. 7. Fell, Barry; "Christian Messages in Old Irish Script Deciphered from Rock Carvings in W. Va.," p. 12. All three articles appeared in: Wonderful West Virginia, vol. 47, March 1983.)


Wonderful West Virginia is obviously not a science journal. Pyle is identified as an archeologist. The articles include many excellent color photographs of the inscriptions, so their reality can hardly be doubted.


Our Handbook Ancient Man covers enigmatic ancient inscriptions in great detail. To order, see: here.



"The season of the blessed advent of the Savior, Lord Christ (Salvatoris Domini Christi)"

From Science Frontiers #27, MAY-JUN 1983. © 1983-2000 William R. Corliss




In 1983, a monthly publication of the WV Division of Natural Resources, Wonderful West Virginia, published three articles claiming that some petroglyphs in remote areas of the state were carved by Irish monks around 700 AD. The articles are widely cited by advocates of "fantastic" or cult archaeology, but are difficult to obtain. Since these allegations are often accepted uncritically, the Council obtained permission to reproduce the originals and make them available for inspection, along with skeptical articles published in the West Virginia Archeologist.

One of these petroglyphs is known by several names. The Luther Elkins Petroglyph (46 Wm 3) was first recorded in 1965 by Edward McMichaels, based on information from two members of the West Virginia Archeological Society, Oscar Mairs and Hillis Youse. This should be the proper name of the site, following the convention that a site is designated by the name given in its first formal report. Robert Pyle reported the site in 1982 as the "Lillyhaven Petroglyph Site" and wrote about it in Wonderful West Virginia as the "Wyoming County Petroglyph." Some also call it the "Lynco Petroglyph."

Two recording techniques are not recommended. Chalk forces the chalker's interpretation over others (see particularly the illustration in Hunter Lesser's first article). It can destroy traces of pigments that may remain on the rock art. Latex peels may damage the lichens growing on the rock art, and might destroy some of the patina (the weathered layer), both of which may someday prove useful in dating petroglyphs.

OGHAM INSCRIPTIONS IN WEST VIRGINIA  (click on this link to download this document)

- America's First Christmas Card By Mike McCormack

This article appeared in From the Housetops, a Roman Catholic quarterly magazine.

America's First Christmas Card

By Mike McCormack

When was the first Christmas message printed in America? It had to come with European Christians, but who were the first Europeans in America? Did they come with Columbus, or did they come earlier with the Vikings; or even earlier with a band of Irish monks? The Navagatio, Saint Brendan's account of his travels across the Atlantic, certainly predates the Viking voyages by some 400 years and establishes Irish visitors as early as the Sixth Century A.D., but no evidence had ever been found to support that claim. That lack of hard evidence led author Timothy Severin to duplicate the voyage of Brendan in 1977, in a leather-covered boat built to Brendan's specifications, but unfortunately, that did little to convince the sceptics.

However, while the sceptics argued that possibility and probability do not offer proof, startling discoveries were being made in the New England states of New Hampshire and Vermont that altered the entire subject. A complex of ancient stone buildings, burial tombs, and oracle chambers, which had been under study for some time, were revealed to be Celtic ­ not from the time of Brendan, but as far back as 800 B.C.!

The evidence was overwhelming. Scores of inscriptions found at the sites were identified as Ogham ­ a system of cypher used by the Celts over 2500 years ago. Using the science of epigraphy ­ the study of ancient carvings on stone ­ Dr. Barry Fell, Harvard professor and president of the Epigraphic Society, not only identified the inscriptions, but translated them. Some identified graves, while others, taken from an oracle chamber, contained religious writings, and still others concerned land boundaries. Together, they indicated a Celtic settlement in America when that form of Ogham was in use, sometime after 800 B.C.

Further, great standing stones, surrounding one of the sites, are geometrically aligned for viewing such celestial events as the summer and winter solstices and seasonal star and lunar patterns. The parallel to Newgrange and similar structures in Ireland is remarkable. In addition to local Indian words and place names with Celtic roots, the defining and dating of pottery, tools, and implements found at the site, also confirm the settlement to be Celtic, matching items produced in the Celtic regions of western Europe during the Bronze Age.

The conclusion that a Celtic society existed in America before the time of Christ is indisputable, but what has that to do with a Christmas Card? Well, Dr. Fell released a book on his initial discoveries, entitled America B.C., and a sequence of events followed which immensely added to the evidence of another group of early settlers, and the Christmas Card they left behind.

Ida Jane Gallagher, a native West Virginian working as a free-lance historian in Connecticut, forwarded to Dr. Fell an article that she had received from the West Virginia Chamber of Commerce. The article described a stone carving in Wyoming County, West Virginia, similar to the ones she had photographed in New England. Discovered by two amateur archeologists in 1964, the carving was examined in 1970 by a Geological survey team, who concluded that the inscription ­ whatever its meaning ­ was the work of early Indians or aborigines, and of no significance, since many such undeciphered carvings existed, whose origins are shrouded in mystery. The find was forgotten for a decade until archeologist Robert Pyle learned of its existence from his assistant Tony Shields.

Shields, a former Wyoming County resident, told Pyle of carvings near his home that were similar to old runic writings. When he produced photos of the carvings as proof, an excited Pyle estimated that they had been carved between 500 and 800 A.D. Beginning in March 1982, Pyle and Shields recorded every detail of the carving in eighteen separate visits. Convinced of its importance, Pyle gave the story to a local newspaper; the editorial and photo that subsequently appeared was clipped by a reader who sent it to the West Virginia Chamber of Commerce magazine. They, in turn, sent it to Ida Jane Gallagher. She immediately arranged to visit the site.

In November 1982, Pyle led a small group up a steep bank in West Virginia to a rock ledge, and Gallagher took her first look at the 10-foot inscription carved on a recessed portion of a cliff face beneath a natural rock overhang. Convinced that it was a major find, she contacted Professor Fell, and he agreed to attempt a translation.

When Dr. Fell saw the petroglyph, he immediately recognized it as an advanced form of the Ogham script he had seen in Ireland and on the New England carvings. He began a translation from Ogham into Old Irish, from Old Irish into modern Irish, and then into English.

The message thus deciphered read:

At the time of sunrise, a ray grazes the notch on the left side on Christmas Day, the first season of the year, the season of the blessed advent of the savior Lord Christ. Behold he is born of Mary, a woman.

According to the translation, the carving was a solar calendar bearing a Christmas message! But how could a Christmas message be carved in America, in an Irish script, between 500 and 800 A.D.? Was there a mistake? The small group decided to verify the translation. Calculating the difference between the Julian calendar (used until the 16th Century) and today's Gregorian calendar, they met at the petroglyph just before sunrise on December 22, 1982. Quietly they waited as the sun climbed in the east, spilled over the mountains, and streamed its rays toward the cliff face before them. They watched in amazement as the first shaft of sunlight funnelled like a flashlight beam through a 3-sided notch in the cliff overhang and struck the center of a sun symbol on the left side of the panel. As they watched in awe, the beam pushed the shadow from left to right, slowly bathing the entire message in sunlight like a prehistoric neon sign announcing yet another Christmas, as it has done for centuries. Before their eyes, they had received a message across the ages.

Subsequent visits showed that the phenomenon only occurred at the winter solstice; and at other times of the year the sun only partially lit the message. In 1985, the distinguished Celtic scholar, Professor Robert T. Meyer visited the site and responded to a question regarding its authenticity in these words:

Nobody could have faked this sort of thing unless they had a very deep knowledge of Celtic philosophy, for this is very archaic, and probably from the sixth or seventh centuries. This, for Celtic scholars, is probably at least as important as the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls . . . because it shows that Irish Monks, I suppose, came here, I would say, about 1500 years ago.

Since that time, other Ogham carvings have been discovered in West Virginia at Bears's Fork in Fayette County and Horse Creek in Boone's County; as well as at Red River Gorge in Kentucky; Shell Rock Canyon, Colorado, and Newfoundland!

As for the Wyoming County petroglyph, it remains for all to see: America's first Christmas message, left between 500 and 800 A.D., by Irish Christian missionaries. We may never know the identity of the person or persons who carved the message, but the fact that it exists, provides important proof of the old claim that Irish monks sailed to America to spread the gospel long before Columbus and the Vikings. An Irish monk named Brendan wrote of that in the Sixth Century, but no one believed him. Now, in view of the earlier settlements found in New England, it should be obvious that the Irish had the map all along.

 America's First Christmas Card  (click on this link to download this document)


- St Brendan's Isle

St Brendan's Isle

Or: Who Really Discovered America?

Maps of Columbus's time often included an island called St. Brendan's Isle that was placed in the western Atlantic ocean. Map makers of the time had no idea of it's exact position but did believe it existed some where west of Europe. It was mentioned in a Latin text dating from the ninth century titled Navigatio Santi Brendani Abatis (Voyage of Saint Brendan the Abbot). It described the voyage as having taken place in the sixth century. Several copies of this text have survived in monasteries throughout Europe. It was an important part of folklore in medieval Europe and may have influenced Columbus.

Historians relate that Brendan was born about 484 A.D. near Tralee in County Kerry. He was ordained by Bishop Erc and sailed about northwest Europe spreading the Christian faith and founding monasteries, the largest at Clonfert, County Galway, where he was buried in 577 A.D. at the age of 93.

The account of Brendan’s voyage contained a detailed description of the construction of his boat which was not unlike the currachs still made in County Kerry today. Skeptics could not accept that such a fragile vessel could possibly sail in the open sea. Several passages in the legend also seemed incredible—they were “raised up on the back of sea monsters”, they “passed by crystals that rose up to the sky”, and were “pelted with flaming, foul smelling rocks by the inhabitants of a large island on their route”. They finally arrived at the beautiful land they called “Promised Land of the Saints.” They explored until they came to a great river that divided the land. The journey of Brendan and his fellow monks took seven years. The return trip was probably the longest part of the odyssey.

In 1976, Tim Severin, a British navigation scholar, embarked from Brandon Creek on the Dingle peninsula in a carrach that he constructed using the details described by Brendan. His goal was to determine if the voyage of Brendan and his fellow monks was possible. They tanned ox-hides with oak bark, stretched them across the wood frame, sewed them with leather thread and smeared the hides with animal fat which would impart water resistance. Examination of nautical charts led Severin to believe that Brendan's route would be governed by the prevailing winds that would take him across the northernmost part of the Atlantic. This would take him close to Iceland and Greenland with a probable landfall at Newfoundland (St. Brendan's Isle). This would be the route that Leif Erickson would have taken in the tenth century. Many of Brendan's stops on his journey were islands where Irish monks had set up primitive monasteries. Norsemen that traveled on these waters visited these islands and recorded their meeting with "Papers" (fathers).

Severin and his crew were surprised at how friendly the whales were that they encountered. The whales swam around and even under their boat. It could have been recognized as another whale by the giant mammals. The whales could have been even friendlier in Brendan's time, before motorized ships would make them leery of man. So friendly that they may have lifted the monk,s boat in a playful gesture.

After stopping at the Hebrides islands Severin proceeded to the Danish Faroe Islands. At the island of Mykines, they encountered thousands of seabirds. Brendan called this island "The Paradise of Birds. "He referred to the larger island as the "Island of Sheep." The word Faroe itself means Island of Sheep. There is also a Brandon Creek on the main island of the Faroes, that the local people believe was the embarkation point for Brendan and his crew.

Severin's route carried them to Iceland where they wintered, as did Brendan. The volcanoes on the island have been active for many centuries and might well have been erupting when the monks stayed there. This could have accounted for the "pelting with flaming, foul smelling rocks", referred to in the ninth century text. The monks had never seen icebergs before, so their description of them as "towering crystals" would make sense.

Severin's boat was punctured by floating ice off the coast of Canada. They were able make a repair with a piece of leather sewn over the hole. They landed on the island of Newfoundland on June 26, 1977. This might well have been Brendan's "Land promised to the Saints" referred to in the Navigatio.

Severin's journey did not prove that Brendan and his monks landed on North America. However it did prove that a leather currach as described in the Navigatio could have made such a voyage as mapped out in the text. There is also no doubt that the Irish were frequent seafarers of the North Atlantic sea currents 900 years before the voyage of Columbus.


More conclusive evidence of Irish exploration of North America has come to the fore in West Virginia. There, stone carvings have been discovered that have been dated between 500 and 1000 A.D. Analysis by archaeologist Dr. Robert Pyle and a leading language expert Dr. Barry Fell indicate that they are written in Old Irish using the Ogham alphabet. According to Dr. Fell, "the West Virginia Ogham texts are the oldest Ogham inscriptions from anywhere in the world. They exhibit the grammar and vocabulary of Old Irish in a manner previously unknown in such early rock-cut inscriptions in any Celtic language." Dr. Fell goes on to speculate that, "It seems possible that the scribes that cut the West Virginia inscriptions may have been Irish missionaries in the wake of Brendan's voyage, for these inscriptions are Christian. The early Christian symbols of piety, such as the various Chi-Rho monograms (Name of Christ) and the Dextra Dei (Right Hand of God) appear at the sites together with the Ogham texts."

The lack of any written account of this exploration could be explained by the explorers not being able to return to their homeland. If they indeed did reach what is now West Virginia, it would be extremely doubtful that they could manage to return to Ireland from a embarkation point that far south. The design of their currach required favorable winds and currents in the right direction in order to navigate. Severin discovered that it was extremely difficult to tack as other sailing ships were able to do. Perhaps that is the reason that it took Brendan seven years for his journey.

We can conclude that the voyage of St.Brendan was not a mere medieval fantasy but a highly plausible tale. These were special men. They sought the lands beyond the horizon, the wondrous realms to be revealed by God, "the Promised Lands."

Learn more about Tim Severin.


**This article was taken from**


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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#14 [url]

Mar 25 13 9:54 AM

The Red Bird Petroglyph of Kentucky; Evidence of Ancient Cultures in the Americas....Page 43


by Joe Kuz

The Red Bird Petroglyph is housed here.

There is ample evidence that the ancient cultures were able to traverse the oceans and travel throughout the world. However, not only the specific details, but even the very existence of these voyages have been generally lost to history. Today we are fortunate that some evidence remains. One example is a stone (photo above) with inscriptions of ancient European, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern languages; this stone was found on a river in the state of Kentucky in the United States. A similar artifact was also found in West Virginia.

The Sign on the Right:

Sign on the right.

The text of the sign reads:

This is the famous Red Bird Petroglyph known since pioneer days and enrolled on the National Register of Historic Sites.

On December 7, 1994, this historic stone fell from a sandstone cliff and rolled onto Highway 66 on Lower Red Bird. On December 9, 1994, it was transported here and set up in its home.

At least 8 Old World alphabets are engraved on it. These alphabets were extinct when Columbus arrived in the New World in 1492.

The alphabets are first century Greek and Hebrew, Old Libyan, Old Arabic and Iberian-Punic which probably dates from the 9th century B.C. Ogam, Germanic Runes, and Tiffinag-Numidian are also on this stone.

Of all the hundreds of important, translatable, and published inscriptions in the U.S.A, this is the first one to have been given official protection. Clay County and the City of Manchester have granted protection to this Stone. In doing so, they have obtained a good name and public esteem worldwide.

The Sign on the Left:

Sign on the left.

(Editor's Note - the bottom line of the sign shows a dissection of the individual characters which compose the symbol entitled "sun disc and inscription to RA".)

Libyan style of
Tunisia & Numidia
South Semitic
Sun Disc
Symbol of RA

Photographs of the petroglyphs, which have been filled in with chalk to make them more easily visible:

Early Christian Monogram
First Century Christian monogram in Hebrew and Greek letters. It means "Jesus Christ Son of the Father."

Ogam Rebus
An Ogam rebus in the Gaelic language it means, "THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD".

Sign for Ra
Sun disc and inscription to RA, the Egyptian sun god, is carved here by Nile Mariners.

The significance of the artifact:

The fact that the stone bearing the petroglyphs was found on a river gives strong evidence that the ancient navigators could and did navigate to other areas served by that river: The Red Bird River flows into the Ohio River, which in turn reaches the Mississippi, which allows access to a majority of the area now comprising the United States. The Red Bird river is on a trail which leads from the Great Lakes in Michigan to the Gulf of Mexico.

Not only are the alphabets of historical interest, the content of the text is of considerable religious significance. Two opposing religions - Judeo/Christian and Pagan Sun Worship - are represented.

The presence of Sun Worship symbols demonstrates how widespread and pervasive that form of idolatry existed in world history; the presence of Christian symbols begs the question of how far the Gospel was spread in those early days before the Dark Ages. What exactly did the apostle Paul mean when he said that in his day the Gospel was preached to "every creature under heaven"? (Colossians 1:23). Could Christian missionaries have traveled to the New World?

While the Bible gives no details of Christian missionaries involved in such travel, it is interesting to note that, the apostle Paul was involved in a shipwreck which involved a ship carrying 276 men. (Acts 27:37) After the Dark Ages, we see a decrease in vessel size and geographic knowledge. (The famous voyage of Columbus consisted of 3 ships whose total crew comprised only 90 men.) Certainly the technology for world travel existed in the time of Paul.

Hundreds of years before the time of Paul, King Solomon had a fleet of trading ships which engaged in three-year voyages (1 Kings 10:22, 2 Chron 9:21). These ships were manned by the Phoenicians, who were known for their abilities in the fields of seafaring and metalworking. There is some evidence that these travelers brought some of their gold from the New World. At any rate, there is evidence of other ancient Hebrew artifacts (from a later period) found in Ohio.


Original location of the Red Bird Petroglyph [map]

Local news article on Red Bird Petroglyph. This article contains additional info on a nearby cave which also features petroglyphs. Reporter Susie Lambert of says, "There is carving inside the cave in Old Arabic or South Semitic. The cave entrance is also of stone where Ogham is carved. There is a stone outside the cave where carvings in Ogham, an early Celtic alphabet, and Old Arabic or South Semitic are also found. These carvings are just like some of those found on the Petroglyph stone that fell. Another fascinating feature is that during the winter solstice, the sun shines directly into the cave somewhat like a gun barrel!" [news article]

Irish petroglyph compared to those of Kentucky (Red Bird) and West Virginia by Robert L. Pyle [web page]

The Newark, Ohio Decalogue Stone and Keystone Quote from the site (which also includes pictures): "In November of 1860, David Wyrick of Newark, Ohio found an inscribed stone in a burial mound about 10 miles south of Newark. The stone is inscribed on all sides with a condensed version of the Ten Commandments or Decalogue, in a peculiar form of post-Exilic square Hebrew letters. The robed and bearded figure on the front is identified as Moses in letters fanning over his head." [web page]

Personal comments:

I have been interested in this type of ancient artifacts for some time, but did not come to Manchester, Kentucky for that reason. Although I know of the finding of several such artifacts in the United States, I was not familiar with the existence of this one.

My family and myself had gone to Kentucky for the week to look for real estate, and were attending Sabbath services at a church down the road. We decided to stay for the picnic that the church was going to have in the park. (They only have this picnic twice a year, so the timing was providential; also, we had the option of attending another church in a different city at the same time instead.) We parked the car at the lot across from the park and in front of the Town Hall. I then notice the rock, which is located in a fenced pavilion at the corner of the lot.

As soon as I read the sign, I realized the rock's significance and got the camera. Upon returning home, I searched the Internet for references to this stone, and realized that it is not well know, even among the sites which specialize in such things. So I have created this page.

The rock is housed at the Manchester courthouse, located in the Stinson-Rawlings Park, across the street from the main picnic area.


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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#16 [url]

Mar 25 13 9:59 AM


Chapter 30








       Ogham is a Gaelic name for ancient alphabets using

  strokes grouped in numbers between one and five.  It may

  have been originally a sign language using the fingers.

  Ogham inscriptions have been found in Ireland, Britain,

  France, Portugal, Spain, Scandinavia, North Africa and

  North America.  The oldest find dates from the Bronze Age

  (BC 1800) and the system was still being used in AD 5th

  century.  The Lebor Gabala Erenn mentions 3x50 branching

  Oghams, the declensions, rows of letters, and books of good




Bead Ogham - A type of script that uses dots or concave

  indents in conjunction with an axis or stem line.



Bricren/Bricriu Ogham - A type of script that uses a different

  number of dots or indents to represent each letter.  The

  spacing betweeen the dots determines the letters.



Consaine Ogham - An alphabet that uses only consonants,

  semivowels and the diphthong "ui".  The strokes appear on

  either side or through the axis or stem line depending on

  the letter.  Consaine has been found in America with Celtic

  and Libian words dated to BC 800.  It is found on silver

  coins from the Aquitani territory of southern France from

  BC 200.  The alphapet was used by the Basques in BC 2nd

  century and has been found on object from the Nordic Bronze




Dyad Tree Ogham - An ogham script shown in the Book of

  Ballymote as extending above and below the axis on branch

  lines in groups from one to five.  It can also be used

  vertically and the branches of the H and B lines are across

  from each other on the axis or stem line.  The script was

  use by the Thracian Celts on their coins and was used by

  the Takhelne tribe of British Columbia Canada.



Fringe Ogham - The strokes are on the same side of the axis or

  stem line and are of varying lengths.  They are usually

  associated with pictographs.



Line Ogham - It is mostly found on pillars and the edges of

  rocks and has an axis or stem line with the strokes on

  either side or passing through it depending on the letter.



─┬──┬┬──┬┬┬──┬┬┬┬──┬┬┬┬┬─   ─┴──┴┴──┴┴┴──┴┴┴┴──┴┴┴┴┴─

  B      L     F/V         S          N              H      D       T          C            Q


─┼──┼┼──┼┼┼──┼┼┼┼──┼┼┼┼┼─   ─●──●●──●●●──●●●●──●●●●●──

  M     G       P          Z            R             A      O       U          E             I




Tree Ogham- It is similar to a tree in that the axis or

  stemline stands up with the strokes angling out like the

  branches of a tree.














REGION       Alberta

LOCATION     Milk River

TRANSLATION  "two prong"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p.173

REMARKS      The pictograph of an antelope has the Celtic

  word for antelope inscribed on it.



REGION       Alberta

LOCATION     Milk River


LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p.169

REMARKS      The pictograph shows the letters that spells the

  name of the Danann deity Goibhnui, the blacksmith, in

  finger ogham.  He is lame and carries a walking stick.



REGION       Alberta

LOCATION     Writing-On-Stone National Park

TRANSLATION  "diseases" / "times of flood" / "omens of

             disaster" / "death in battle" / "withering of

             the corn cobs and prairie" / "birds bring good

             luck" / Eastern quarter: "here is good luck" /

             "The secret writing interprets the auguries on

             the geese, from the gaggle, its when, its

             whence, and its whither."

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Ancient Celtic America - p.113

REMARKS      The northwest, west and southwest face of the

  hoodoo brings omens of bad luck and those on the southeast,

  east, and northeast sides are omens of good luck based on

  the flights of geese.



REGION       Alberta

LOCATION     Writing-On-Stone National Park

TRANSLATION  "Byanu, Mother of the Gods, Queen of the World"

LANGUAGE     Celtic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p.222-223

REMARKS      The pictograph has its message inscribed in

  fringe ogham along the arms and legs as if the person were

  wearing a fringe jacket and pants.



REGION       British Columbia

LOCATION     Canal flats - site 77

TRANSLATION  "father and sons - the hunt"

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America p.193

REMARKS      The ogham script was written by an Amerindian of

  the Takhelne tribe in Irish Gaelic.  The tribal language is

  heavly influenced by Gaelic words.



REGION       British Columbia

LOCATION     Chandler Ranch (Site 2)

TRANSLATION  "copulating"

LANGUAGE     Old Irish Gaelic / Scots Gaelic

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p.207

REMARKS      A pictograph from John Corner's site near

  Lillooet and Ogham bring across the message of mating.



REGION       British Columbia

LOCATION     Haney - UBC research forest

TRANSLATION  "pure, limpid"

LANGUAGE     North Iberic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       MacDonald - ESOP Vol.10, no.244 (1982):97-98

REMARKS      A boulder marked with ogham that claims the

  water of spring creek is clear to drink.



REGION       British Columbia

LOCATION     Stien River (John Corner's site 6)

TRANSLATION  "a fleece timely to be sheared" / "robbed of


DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p.171

REMARKS      The pictographs imply that the Celts captured

  bighorn sheep and sheared them to make wool for weaving.



REGION       British Columbia

LOCATION     Vernon (John Corner's Site 68)

TRANSLATION  "running"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - 211

REMARKS      The site has a pictograph of two runners

  accompanied by the ogham inscription.



REGION       Nova Scotia

TRANSLATION  "I escape danger of battle wounds"

             "I shall not die now; I shall not die soon; I

             fight on."

LANGUAGE     Micmac

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vol.14, no.384 (1985) - 140-141

REMARKS      Ogham consaine has been found on two different

  pendants used by the Micmacs to help protect them in




REGION       Ontario

LOCATION     Petroglyphs Park in Peterborough

TRANSLATION  Woden-lithi, a great chieftain of Ringerike,

             Sweden sailed his ship Gungnir to the

             Peterborough site in Canada on a trial run

             looking for high quality copper.  He stayed for

             five months (April-May to August-September) then

             sailed back to Norway.

DATE         BC 1700

LANGUAGE     Old Norse

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America pg 107-1

REMARKS      The language was old Norse and it was written in

  the Tifinag script.  This was a fraction of the story

  translated by Dr Fell at the Peterborough site.



REGION       Ontario

LOCATION     Petroglyphs Park in Peterborough

TRANSLATION  "Mabo of the youth, lyre, and lur"

DATE         BC 1700

LANGUAGE     Old Norse

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - 198

REMARKS      Ogham script and Old Norse languages were used

  to identify the Celtic god Mabon.








REGION       London

LOCATION     British Museum

TRANSLATION  "rightful successor"

DATE         pre-Roman

LANGUAGE     Brythonic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vol.15, (1986): 16

REMARKS      A Celtic coin struck by Cunobelin with Tifinag

  writing on it.



REGION       Wiltshire

LOCATION     Avebury Museum

TRANSLATION  "Byanu a protection in battle"

DATE         BC 3300 is the site date

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Gallager/Fell - ESOP Vol. 15, (1986): 34-36

REMARKS      A chalk amulet found at the Avebury site and now

  in the Avebury museum has an ogham inscription asking Byanu

  for protection in battle.








REGION       Frankfurt am Main

LOCATION     Muenzkabinett of the Historical Museum

TRANSLATION  "One Drachma" / "The Elusates"

DATE         BC 2nd century

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vol.14, no.351 (1985): 96-97

REMARKS      The coin was one of those dispensed by the

  Elusates tribe.








REGION       Cavan

LOCATION     Diseart Chiarain (hermitage), outside of Kells

TRANSLATION  "Covagni maqi mucoi luguni"

SOURCE       Rough Guide

REMARKS      The ogham used is edge ogham.



REGION       Clare

LOCATION     Callan Mountain

TRANSLATION  "Beneath this flag is placed Cosaf, the fiery

             and fleet-footed."

DECIPHERER   Lawrence Athy

SOURCE       Athy - ESOP Vol.18 (1989): 171-178



REGION       Clare

LOCATION     Killaloe

TRANSLATION  "A blessing upon Throgrim" (Ogham)

             "Thorgrim carved this cross" (Runic)

DECIPHERER   Lawrence Athy

SOURCE       Athy - ESOP Vol.18 (1989): 171-178

REMARKS      The ogham inscriptions are well-executed and

  accompanied by runic inscriptions.



REGION       Kerry

LOCATION     Amberberd

TRANSLATION  "At a woman's deliver"

DECIPHERER   Lawrence Athy

SOURCE       Athy - ESOP Vol.18 (1989): 171-178



REGION       Kerry

LOCATION     Ballintaggart

TRANSLATION  "Of Maqqas-lari here, descendant of the tribe of

             Dobinia" (Ogham: "Maqqi-lari Koi Maqqi Muccoi

             Dovvinias") / "Dofet son of Cattin" / "Son of

             Deccea" / "Tria the son of Meolagan" / "Cun,

             great-grandson of Corb" / etc.

DECIPHERER   Lawrence Athy

SOURCE       Athy - ESOP Vol.18 (1989): 171-178

REMARKS      A number of stones in the same area have ogham

  inscriptions of an identifying type, similar to modern

  gravestones.  The name of the tribe Dobinia may refer to

  the Dobunni tribe, also of England.



REGION       Kerry

LOCATION     Fort William

TRANSLATION  "Hill of the people of the woods of Sugru, of

             the plain of O'Conree"

DECIPHERER   Lawrence Athy

SOURCE       Athy - ESOP Vol.18 (1989): 171-178



REGION       Kerry

LOCATION     Kilbonane

TRANSLATION  "Bonan, son of Adlon, son of Nirenan, son of

             Esscu, son of Lamidan, son of Dangon" / "Agni,

             son of Addilona, daughter of the family Baethin"

DECIPHERER   Lawrence Athy

SOURCE       Athy - ESOP Vol.18 (1989): 171-178



REGION       Kerry

LOCATION     Kinard

TRANSLATION  "[sacred stone] of Marian / the field of Ruan"

DECIPHERER   Lawrence Athy

SOURCE       Athy - ESOP Vol.18 (1989): 171-178

REMARKS      The decipherer suggests that this is a boundary




REGION       Kerry

LOCATION     Skellig Michael Island

TRANSLATION  "This was Madoc"

DECIPHERER   Lawrence Athy

SOURCE       Athy - ESOP Vol.18 (1989): 171-178

REMARKS      The rock inscription is without a stem-line and

  without vowels.



REGION       Tyrone

LOCATION     Castlederg

TRANSLATION  "On this side a bird [is] a portent of warning:

             if it changes course [there is] good along with


DECIPHERER   Lawrence Athy

SOURCE       Athy - ESOP Vol.18 (1989): 171-178

REMARKS      The ogham markings on the stone are in a format

  similar to runes.  The stone is incorporated into a dolmen.



REGION       Tyrone

LOCATION     Druids Altar at Castlederg near Churchtown in

             the Foyle

TRANSLATION  "On this side a bird is a portent of warning: if

             it changes direction (there is) good along ..."

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vol.16 (1987): 301-303

REMARKS      The site was probably used to divine the future

  by studying the flights of birds.






Isle of Man



LOCATION     Andreas

TRANSLATION  Ogham - "Ambeacatos Maqi Aocatus"

             Latin - "Ammecat Filius Rocat"

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic / Latin

SOURCE       Stenning



LOCATION     Arbory

TRANSLATION  "of Cunamalgus son of"

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

SOURCE       Stenning



LOCATION     Arbory

TRANSLATION  "of Maqleog"

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

SOURCE       Stenning

REMARKS      This inscription translates as "descendant of




LOCATION     Ballaqueen

TRANSLATION  "of Baivaidu son of Convali"

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

SOURCE       Stenning



LOCATION     Ballaqueen

TRANSLATION  "of Davaidu the Druid's son"

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

SOURCE       Stenning








REGION       Prado da Rodela

LOCATION     well

TRANSLATION  "The fountain is sacred to Mabo, the crags above

             are sacred to his mother Byanu the fruitful"

LANGUAGE     Old Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vol.12, No.281 (1984): 12-18

REMARKS      This is only one of the different ogham

  translations done by Dr. Fell in relation to a well

  inscription to Mabon and his mother (B_IA_N) found by Prof

  Rodrigues dos Santos in northern Portugal.








REGION       Argyll Peninsula near the Firth of Clyde

LOCATION     Tollard House Site

TRANSLATION  "sleep in the cave at night and become pregnant"

LANGUAGE     Old Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Gallagher - ESOP vol.14, no.367 (1985): 154

REMARKS      The American researchers consider this to be

  quite important to their research because of the similarity

  to these inscriptions and those at sites in the United

  States.  The writers of Ancient American Inscriptions

  cannot accept the interpretation because of mistakes in the




REGION       Edinburgh

LOCATION     Royal Museum of Scotland

TRANSLATION  "Axes taken from battle"

LANGUAGE     Old Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vol.14, no.363 (1985): 137

REMARKS      The ogham was written in a type of consaine

  ogham called fringe ogham similar to that found in parts of

  North America.  It was found at Ri Cruin Argyll.



TRANSLATION  "With this little phallus you'll be lucky with


LANGUAGE     Old Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP vol.12, no.285 (1984): 32

REMARKS      The description was on a Phallus stone.








LOCATION     Hjulatorp

TRANSLATION  The globe of the sun god drives across the sky

             in a chariot.

DATE         BC 2nd millenium

LANGUAGE     Old Norse

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 15

REMARKS      The message is written using ogham consaine and

  tifinag scripts.





United States of America



REGION       California


LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 165

REMARKS      The pictograph shows Ogma with a sun symbol for

  a head (a dot and 3 concentric circles with 4 sun rays). He

  is holding the ogham letters G M in his left hand and what

  could be a wand or his sword in the right hand.  The body

  has four sun symbols in a row from top to bottom with 2

  concentric rings each.  They are in a rectangle which has

  serrated sides with 8 cavities.  His feet are in the shape

  of birds' feet.



REGION       California

LOCATION     Horton Creek, Bishop

TRANSLATION  "Desolate: valley by the river is less cold"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Dawson/Yoder - ESOP Vol.14, no.381 (1985)

REMARKS      The message was on a major trade route and a

  couple of miles from a secluded site among the woods.



REGION       California

LOCATION     Inyo County

TRANSLATION  "The men [here] are savages, small and ill

             nourished, but hostile"

LANGUAGE     Old Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 101

REMARKS      The message was left to warn travellers and




REGION       California

LOCATION     Picture Canyon southwest of Campo in Commanche

             National Grasslands

TRANSLATION  "Strike here on the day of Bel"

LANGUAGE     Old Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Gallagher - ESOP Vol.14, no.339 (1985): 31

REMARKS      The cave at Picture Canyon is a solar calendar

  built by the Celts.



REGION       California

LOCATION     Tule Lake, East Peninsula

TRANSLATION  "A tally made for the chief of the tithes paid

             in (maois) lots each of 500 fish"

LANGUAGE     Old Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - 182

REMARKS      The ogham is a tally for the purpose of taxation

  of how many fish each chief received.



REGION       California

LOCATION     Tule Lake, East Peninsula

TRANSLATION  "Pray to Beanu that the corn may grow"

LANGUAGE     Celtiberian

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - 228

REMARKS      At this site, some of the five stave letters are

  shown in a zigzag pattern.



REGION       Colorado

TRANSLATION  "May be used for shelter" / "This is a

             sheltering place for travelers in general

             whatsoever" / "Route-sign" / "Route Guide: To

             the west is the frontier-town with standing

             stones as boundary markers."

LANGUAGE     Old Irish

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Leonard & Glenn - ESOP Vol.9, no.223 (1981)

REMARKS      The ogham inscriptions were found by Mark

  Ludlow, a field biologist, on a rock overhang of a stream

  on private land in Colorado.



REGION       Colorado

LOCATION     The Tunnel Rock

TRANSLATION  "Mag son of Mag priest of Bel"

DATE         AD 450 - 700

LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Ancient Celtic America

REMARKS      There is a petroglyph which shows a 3-way

  conjunction of planets which astronomer Ron Gillespie

  calculates as pointing to a date of August 8, 471 AD.



REGION       Colorado (southeastern)

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Farley/Fell - ESOP Vol.16 (1987): 96-97

REMARKS      The message translates as a chant to the god

  Mabo/Oengus asking for help to ensure successful crops.



REGION       Connecticut

TRANSLATION  "In this small stone lies the power of averting

             sickness.  The ogham protects from debilitation

             of the Evil Eye"

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vol.16 (1987): 18-19

REMARKS      This stone with ogham writing was found in




REGION       Kansas

LOCATION     Astronomical Site 23 Cl 276


LANGUAGE     Old Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vo.l14, no. 366 (1985): 148-153

REMARKS      The article discusses the similarity of medicine

  wheels or moon calendars in North America with one in

  Portugal.  A stone with ogham was found at one of the sites

  in Kansas.



REGION       Maine

LOCATION     Crow Island, Penobscot Bay - near Deer Island

TRANSLATION  "A sheltered island, where ships may lie in a

              harbour.  Haakon brought his cog here."

LANGUAGE     old Nordic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 116-118

REMARKS      The message was written in bead ogham script.



REGION       Nevada


LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 165

REMARKS      The pictograph shows Ogma with a sun symbol for

  a head (dot and 2 concentric circles with a third implied

  by the bend in the ends of the 8 sun rays.  He holds ogam

  script for G M in his left hand and a sword or wand in his

  right hand.  The body is divided into four parts with

  vertical line in each 4, 9, 5, 5 = 24.  His feet are in the

  shape of birds feet.



REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     Clark County - Cane Springs CL-4

TRANSLATION  "I sing stanzas to music"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 214

REMARKS      The pictograph depicts a figure with a lyre-

  shaped head with ogham consaine.



REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     Clark County - Cane Springs CL-4

TRANSLATION  "Cetan / Cetan / the Melodious / Mabo"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 215

REMARKS      This pictograph of Mabon shows him carrying a

  sun symbol in his right hand with the ogham consaine

  spelling the word Cetan which is the name of his festival

  on Beltane.  On his head he wears a set of antlers with the

  word Cetan again spelled in his hair naming his festival.

  In his left hand he carries the word "melodious" and in his

  face is his name "Mabo".



REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     Clark County - Cane Springs

TRANSLATION  "pitch", "bat", "catch","runs"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 212

REMARKS      The fringe ogham which accompanies pictographs

  describes a game played by two teams of Celts.



REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     Clark County, Lost City


LANGUAGE     Celtic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 231

REMARKS      The ogham script is accompanied by a pictograph

  of a bighorn, a foot and thread that spelled out the word




REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     East Walker River

TRANSLATION  "song accompanied by harp"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 220

REMARKS      There are two rocks on the site.  One has the

  pictograph of the singer holding the harp and the other

  rock has the ogham consaine incription.



REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     Mineral County at Garfield Flat


LANGUAGE     Welsh

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 182

REMARKS      There is a pictograph of a boat with birds

  flying overhead that spell out the word "boat" in Welsh.



REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     Spanish Springs

TRANSLATION  lyre or lesser harp

LANGUAGE     Scottish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 219

REMARKS      A rock on the site has a pictograph of a four-

  stringed harp, tortoise shell and ogham consaine.



REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     Valley of Fire

TRANSLATION  Weaving sticks, loom post, pin or peg "loom

             comb" "pattern"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic / Early Irish

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 233-235

REMARKS      The site has a number of pictographs with the

  ogham scripts.



REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     Valley of Fire, Atlatl Rock


LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 172

REMARKS      The pictograph of a Rocky Mountain sheep has the

  ogham consaine in the old Irish language which spells rete




REGION       Nevada

LOCATION     White Pine county


LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 217

REMARKS      This pictograph depicts Mabon as having a lyre-

  shaped head which spells out his name.



REGION       Nevada (southern)

LOCATION     Cane Springs

TRANSLATION  rods for weaving "ball" or "roll of Wool"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 232

REMARKS      The ogham inscriptions are within pictographs of

  items used in the making of wool.



REGION       Nevada (southern)

LOCATION     Lost city - on the east bank of the Muddy River

TRANSLATION  "to spin wool"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic / Old Irish / Welsh

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 231

REMARKS      There is an interesting pictograph of a bighorn

  sheep, threads of wool spelling wool in ogham and a foot,

  "cas", meaning "to spin" in Gaelic.



REGION       New York

LOCATION     found at Keuka Park

TRANSLATION  "I pray for trout, Mabo"

LANGUAGE     archaic Scotiish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Grutherie - ESOP Vol.12, no.294 (1984): 91-93

REMARKS      A stone tablet of unbaked clay was found to have

  a prayer in ogham to Mabon to give success in fishing.



REGION       Oklahoma

LOCATION     The Anubis Cave

TRANSLATION  "Enact at sunset the rites of Bel (the sun god),

             assembling at that hour in worship". / "The sun

             belongs to Bel.  This cavern on the days of the

             equinox is for the chanting of prayers to Bel."/

             "A single day of two equal parts"

LANGUAGE     Gaelic / Libyan

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vol.14, no.342 (1985): 45-60

REMARKS      There are many more inscriptions pertaining to

  the movements of the planets through the seasons in this

  astronomical calendar cave.  Its main purpose is to show

  the equinox.



REGION       Oklahoma

LOCATION     The Anubis Caves

TRANSLATION  "Boan, the horse-goddess herself, observing the

             motions of the stars." / "At Savain the sun is

             in Scorpio" / "Day of the onset of winter" /

             "Bel (sun god) retires" / "Festival of ripe

             corn, abundance" / "Day of ghosts"

LANGUAGE     Scottish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Fell - ESOP Vol.14, no.385 (1985): 142-147

REMARKS      The ogham for this inscription was Bricren

  ogham, and as it turns out the Anubis caves hold some

  amazing information on the Celts.



REGION       Pennsylvania

LOCATION     Conestoga, Lancaster County

TRANSLATION  "to the libation bowl" or "build a libation


LANGUAGE     Celtiberian

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       McSherry - ESOP Vol.10, no.243 (1982): 94-96

REMARKS      The ogham seems to have been caused by the

  natural phenomenon of earth erosion (slumping).  The

  science of Petromanteia was practiced which was the

  interpretation of divine messages.  A section of the lines

  could be read as "build a libation bowl" which they did.

  Its size is approximately 1'x 2'x 6" (30x60x15 cm).



REGION       Pennsylvania

LOCATION     Susquehanna Valley

TRANSLATION  "To Baal son of Iabagug or Habakuk"

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       America BC - p. 54



REGION       Texas

LOCATION     Fambrough, Stephens County

TRANSLATION  "Whether it be food, or other necessity, take

             it; in the cave kindle a fire; this ogham

             authorizes sojourn here"

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       ESOP Vol.10, no.247 (1982): 107-108

REMARKS      The inscription seems to imply that Celts used

  the cave for a resting area while trading in the area.



REGION       Vermont

LOCATION     Cavendish Township

TRANSLATION  "To the goddess Bianu Mabona.  Give thanks for

             rain showers by chanting: For blessings pray to

             Lug during Caitean (May).  Each time by smoking

             the sacred tobacco pipe."

LANGUAGE     Celtiberian

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Ancient Celtic America - p. 103

REMARKS      This inscription is carved on a 13' (4 m)

  standing stone in a field in the Cavendish Township.



REGION       Vermont

LOCATION     South Woodstock

TRANSLATION  fecundity of the mother goddess Byanu

LANGUAGE     Celtic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 205

REMARKS      The eroded ogham inscription is on a phallus




REGION       Vermont

LOCATION     South Woodstock


LANGUAGE     Celtic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Bronze Age America - p. 237

REMARKS      In the chamber of the megalith there is a

  pictograph on the ceiling and the name Byanu in ogham

  consaine.  The name is spelled the same as that on the

  amulet taken from the Windmill Hill site in England.



REGION       Vermont

LOCATION     The Two Chimneys Farm, Royalton

TRANSLATION  "Enchanted rock for the protection of the

             surrounding lands" /  "A stone dedicated to Bel"

             "A protection to keep the lands safe on your


LANGUAGE     Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Sincerbeaux/Dexter/Fell - ESOP Vol.12, no.297

             (1984): 110-116

REMARKS      The boulder was found in a field of a farm by a

  stone chamber with some standing stones.



REGION       Virginia

LOCATION     Lewis Creek Mound

TRANSLATION  "Receive them, Beanu.  May the breasts of Beanu

             receive our clan.  By the stench of death the

             battlefield brings forth vultures.  The

             gluttons.  We build this earth mound of the two

             tumuli and mourn in anguish the battlefield o

             Beanu mother of our race."

DATE         AD 1110-1170

LANGUAGE     old Irish Gaelic

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Andrews/Fell - ESOP Vol.16 (1987): 125-129

REMARKS      A slab of sandstone with ogham markings was

  found in the grave Creek Mound.



REGION       Wyoming (southwestern)

LOCATION     Cedar Canyon north of Rock Springs

TRANSLATION  "Truly the light is sweet, A pleasant thing to

             behold the Sun.  Behold, the eye of Bel is on

             them that revere him.  Among the gods none is

             like Thee."

DECIPHERER   Dr. Barry Fell

SOURCE       Walker - ESOP Vol.16 (1987): 304-306








REGION       Clwyd

LOCATION     near Ruthin at the Pool Park Hospital

SOURCE       Hammond

REMARKS      There is a Celtic monolith on the property with

  an inscription in ogham and latin scripts.



REGION       Dyfed

LOCATION     Carmarthen Museum

TRANSLATION  "Voteocorigas"

DATE         AD 6th century

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic

SOURCE       Ellis

REMARKS      There is an ogham stone in the museum that was

  dedicated to Voteocorigas.



REGION       Dyfed

LOCATION     Nevern church

TRANSLATION  latin "Maglicunas fili clutar"

             ogham "Maglocun - maqi cluta (Mael Gwyn, son of


DATE         AD 6th century

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic


SOURCE       Worsley

REMARKS      The ogham stone is set into the wall of the

  Neven church.  Dr Graves translated it in AD 19th century.



REGION       Dyfed

LOCATION     Nevern church

TRANSLATION  latin "Vitalianus emereto" / ogham "Vitali ..."

DATE         AD 6th century

LANGUAGE     Irish Gaelic


SOURCE       Worsley

REMARKS      The ogham stone is near the Nevern church is for

  a soldier who was discharged with honor.  Dr Graves

  translated it in AD 19th century.






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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#19 [url]

Mar 25 13 10:15 AM


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

(Redirected from Petroglyphs)
Petroglyphs on a Bishop Tuff tableland
Petroglyphs on a Bishop Tuff tableland
Petroglyph on Petroglyph Point
Petroglyph on Petroglyph Point
Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point
Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point
Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point
Petroglyphs on Petroglyph Point
Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument
Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument
Petroglyphs from Scandinavia (Häljesta, Västmanland in Sweden). Composite. Nordic Bronze Age. The glyphs are colored similar to the assumed original coloration.
Petroglyphs from Scandinavia (Häljesta, Västmanland in Sweden). Composite. Nordic Bronze Age. The glyphs are colored similar to the assumed original coloration.

A Petroglyph is an image recorded on stone, usually by prehistoric peoples. The word comes from the Greek words petros meaning "stone" and glyphein meaning "to carve" (it was originally coined in French as pétroglyphe). This term is often used to refer to images painted on stone. However, the terms "Pictograph" or Cave painting are used to describe images painted on stone rather than Petroglyph which, in the strictest sense, refers to carved or engraved images.

These images had deep cultural and religious significance for the societies that created them; in many cases, this significance remains for their descendants. Petroglyphs have been found on all continents except Antarctica with highest concentration in Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, North America and Australia. They range in age from a few hundred years old to as much as 200,000-300,000 years old, in the case of glyphs found in a cave in Bhimbetka, India in the 1990s.

Examples of petroglyphs can be found at

Many petroglyphs are thought to represent some kind of not yet fully understood symbolic or ritual language. The later carvings from the Nordic Bronze Age in Scandinavia seems to indicate some form of territory boundaries between tribes, except its religious meaning. There appear to be "dialects" between neighborhood and contemporary petroglyphs. The Siberian inscriptions almost looks like some early form or runes, although there is no relationship. They are not yet understood.

The West Virginia glyphs are worth noting for the controversy that erupted over them in the 1980s. Barry Fell, a retired professor of marine biology at Harvard, published an article in 1983, describing how he had deciphered petroglyphs in several places in southern West Virginia to actually be written in Ogam, an Irish Celtic script dating back to the 6th to 8th century AD, and that they were in fact a detailed description of the nativity of Christ. Fell is noted as promoting a theory of North America being visited by Irish, Iberian, Libyan, and Egyptian explorers "some 2,000 to 2,500 years ago".

In fact, Fell's method of interpretation involved almost arbitrary grouping of markings, and interpreting them to be only the consonants of Ogam, then adding in vowels where he saw fit, in addition to adding horizontal stem lines where he saw fit, which allowed him to decide which of three consonants each glyph should represent. Fell's work was subsequently debunked by linguists and archaeologists from several countries, to which Fell responded by accusing them of being "too damn lazy" to read his writings, and of being "ignorant".

See also

External Links

Wikimedia Foundation

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#20 [url]

Mar 25 13 10:18 AM


Old News: Ancient Celts in America?


Old News: Ancient Archaeoastronomy
Ancient Celts in America?

The Old News DVD is a 1½ hour documentary suggesting western European Celts explored America's heartland by the Middle Ages, perhaps even before Christ.

Celtic Ogham writing, archaeoastronomical alignments, engraved constellation maps and anthropomorphic carvings tell a story that overwhelms traditional archaeologists and anthropologists.

Purchase Old News DVD

Rock art discoveries over the past generation demonstrate Christopher Columbus was a relative late-comer among European sailors who explored North America. The exciting evidence, dated by nuclear chemistry, is carved on the remote sandstone cliffs and within caves of the rugged Oklahoma panhandle and southeastern Colorado canyon country. Written messages in an ancient Celtic alphabet known as Ogham survive in proximity to the more abundant imagery of the wonderful petroglyphic art of the Plains Indians. "Old News" documents the passion by advocates of pre-Columbian, transatlantic contact and the stunning intolerance of most professional archaeologists to seriously consider the evidence.

Particularly compelling are archaeoastronomical links to the Old World. Rock art shadow plays that occur only at equinox sunrises and sunsets, a Lughnasad cross-quarter dawn and a summer solstice sunset are all accompanied by predictive Ogham inscriptions. Additionally, engraved constellation maps tie these remarkable finds to distinctively Indo-European understandings of the Zodiac in ancient times.

The "Noble Twins" inscription, for example, memorializes 3 planets traveling through the Gemini Constellation, a rare and noteworthy event for ancient sky watchers, observed just before dawn on Lughnasad, August 8, 471 CE. Woven into some of the star maps are secrets of the initiates in an arcane, astral religion known as Mithraism that pre-dated Christianity. Mithras and his entourage are symbolic participants in a revealing shadow-cast a virtual ancient motion picture at equinox sunset in Oklahoma's Anubis Cave. Unless professional anthropologists take an interest, all these threads to the past may simply be forgotten.

Statement by the director

Some people have asked me why windmills play such a scenic role at the beginning of Old News and again, later, as a background for its credits. If you travel U.S. 287 through southeastern Colorado, there's not much to break the monotony of the windswept landscape. But on a ridge between Lamar and Springfield is a monstrous, modern wind farm for generating electricity. It wasn't even on the drawing boards in the mid-1980s when I filmed an earlier documentary, History on the Rocks, but even then I had entertained the idea of including scenes of an old fashioned, water-pump windmill to underscore the hardships and remoteness of life on the high, desolate plains.

Artistically, scenes of both the old and the new windmills form a nice introductory contrast of our pervasive high-technology lifestyle to the low-tech culture of our distant ancestors, whose imaginations were, arguably, much richer. Yet, their accomplishments certainly must not be diminished because their tools were cruder than ours. As Gloria Farley underscores in our epilogue, "Why do we think that people who were ancient, were primitive?" In the 21st century we really do stand on the shoulders of giants. I have a more subtle reason for featuring windmills, however. The relativity can be grasped within some of the unsung lyrics of our theme, "The Windmills of Your Mind," written by Alan Bergman, Marilyn Bergman & Michel Legrand, published by EMI U Catalog Inc., (ASCAP)
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Like a clock whose hands are sweeping
Past the minutes on its face
And the world is like an apple
Whirling silently in space
Like the circles that you find
In the windmills of your mind.

Like a tunnel that you follow
To a tunnel of it's own
Down a hollow to a cavern
Where the sun has never shone
Like a door that keeps revolving
In a half forgotten dream
Or the ripples from a pebble
Someone tosses in a stream.

Like a circle in a spiral
Like a wheel within a wheel
Never ending or beginning,
On an ever spinning wheel
As the images unwind
Like the circles that you find
In the windmills of your mind.

The legendary dreamer Don Quixote tilted at windmills, questioned authority, challenged the very perception of reality, as does What The Bleep Do We Know!?. Don Quixote's tenacity is the sort of persistence needed by anyone who suggests an alternate theory not welcomed by the establishment. William Adams' haunting baroque oboe rendition of "The Windmills of Your Mind" sets a perfect tone for an idealistic quest to rewrite history.

Anecdotal accounts

Inspirational guides and muses are indispensable in priming creative juices. Just weeks before his death, Bill McGlone initiated a resumption of telephone calls to me. We hadn't really spoken in about a decade. He asked for a batch of VHS dubs of my 1985 KRMA documentary History on the Rocks to help in publicizing the upcoming release of a book he co-authored, Archaeoastronomy of S.E. Colorado and the Oklahoma Panhandle. Bill also implored me, as he had many years earlier, to start work on a sequel based on the rich trove of evidence forthcoming since the mid 1980s. Bill died of a sudden heart attack in his home in La Junta at the end of January 1999.

Michael Knowth who lives near Fourknocks, County Meath, Ireland runs I operate, and although we have never met, we share an interest in Irish megalithic tombs, particularly Newgrange, Knowth, Dowth and the Loughcrew sites. When Andy Burnham, whom I had met on a trip to England in January 2000, surrendered his ringmaster role with the Stone Circle Web Ring, a loose alliance of related websites, it was Michael who volunteered to become the new ringmaster. Michael and I exchanged occasional emails in 2004. But his video gift of the spring equinox 2005 light and shadow play shot in the interior of Loughcrew Cairn T arrived in my mailbox somewhat unexpectedly, but coincidentally, just as we were about to finish piecing together a significantly relevant segment of Old News on archaeoastronomy. Michael's contribution is a key element in our story, but just barely made inclusion.

TransVision hired intellectual property attorney Deborah Shinbein of the Denver law firm Faegre & Benson, LLC, to prepare copyright papers in November 2005 and help us assure all clearances were in proper order. We were in the final online edit at Denver High Def and wanted to wrap the project by Thanksgiving or early December at the latest. Deborah red-flagged a series of scenes involving a number of attendees at the CU Boulder presentation of November 16, 2004, for which we had not obtained release forms.

The one person in the audience who asked a question on camera, indeed refused us permission when I contacted her by phone, forcing us into an 11th hour exterior facilities shoot to replace the uncleared footage. Our edit schedule was tight, and a major snowstorm was on its way within 24 hours, predicted to blanket Boulder with white cover that probably wouldn't melt away for a week or more. The morning of November 14, 2005, was, as TV weathermen are fond of saying, "unsettled". Clouds were rolling in and light rain and sleet were falling as I made my way up the Boulder Turnpike from metro Denver. I made a beeline for the Flagstaff Mountain overlook above the campus, knowing I had no time to spare.

Just as I finished setting up the camera, the wind subsided and a break in the clouds let the sun in, just enough to highlight the red-tile roofed campus buildings in the foreground leaving the distant landscape to the east, appropriately dimmed. This providential natural lighting could not have been ordered any better. Later in the afternoon, the snow fell hard. And the remainder of the week, when we were scheduled to be in edit anyway, would not have afforded such outstanding lighting as we enjoyed, briefly, on that Monday morning.

Purchase Old News DVD

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