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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#21 [url]

Mar 25 13 10:24 AM

From: [email protected]
Subject: [Melungeon] Re: Blood types DNA and Petroglyphs
Date: Sun, 25 May 2003 20:16:38 EDT

In a message dated 5/25/2003 7:12:53 PM Eastern Standard Time,
[email protected] writes:

> My husband is O type. He is definitely of European descent.
> D

“The Basques remain one anthropological enigma despite centuries of
speculation and study” says William A. Douglas, Director of the Basque Studies Program
at the University of Nevada."

"The language and unusual blood-type frequencies constitute their chief
claims to ethnic individuality. (Basques have a high frequency of O blood, a low
frequency of B blood and the world’s highest level of RH negative factor)."

"men from the west coast of Ireland, in Connaught, and in the descendents of
these men, nearly 98 percent show traces of DNA that seems to have
originated with the
earliest migrations across Europe. They estimate that the form of the DNA
present in Ireland is over 4000 years old.

The only place *outside of Ireland where the concentrations approach these is

in the Basque country between Spain and France, which has for a long time
been recognized for having a language that apparently predates the spread of
the common "Indo-European" languages. "


"One petroglyph on Laurel Branch of Goose Creek in Clay County, Ky., is
thought to have been put here by Irish monks that came to American about 500 to 600
A D....

It is these monks that are believed to be ones that have left the messages
carved on stone using Gaelic(the old Irish language) and the Celtic script
called Ogam. It is possible that some of the holy men lived with the Native
Americans as missionaries."

"In 1998 and 2000, Pyle traveled to Ireland to investigate Ogam markings. In
2000 Dr. William Grant invited Pyle to participate in a research team that
examined the first known Irish Ogam petroglyph panel, located in the remote and
rugged mountains of southern Ireland. Ogam has commonly been found on corner
edges of tombstones, not on rock formations. The unique Irish petroglyph panel
turned out to be larger and more complex, yet the markings were virtually
identical to the West Virginia and Kentucky petroglyphs. "

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#22 [url]

Mar 25 13 10:26 AM

Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surfaces by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. Outside North America, scholars often use terms such as "carving", "engraving", or other descriptions of technique to refer to such images. Petroglyphs are found world-wide, and are often (but not always) associated with prehistoric peoples. The word comes from the Greek words petros meaning "stone" and glyphein meaning "to carve" (it was originally coined in French as pétroglyphe).

The term petroglyph should not be confused with pictograph, which is an image drawn or painted on a rock face. Both types of image belong to the wider and more general category of rock art. Petroforms, or patterns and shapes made by many large rocks and boulders in rows over the ground, are also quite different.



[edit] History

Composite image of petroglyphs from Scandinavia (Häljesta, Västmanland in Sweden). Nordic Bronze Age. The glyphs have been painted to make them more visible.
Composite image of petroglyphs from Scandinavia (Häljesta, Västmanland in Sweden). Nordic Bronze Age. The glyphs have been painted to make them more visible.
A petroglyph of a caravan of bighorn sheep near Moab, Utah, USA; a common theme in glyphs from the desert southwest
A petroglyph of a caravan of bighorn sheep near Moab, Utah, USA; a common theme in glyphs from the desert southwest

The oldest petroglyphs are dated to approximately the Neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. Around 7,000 to 9,000 years ago, other precursors of writing systems, such as pictographs and ideograms, began to appear. Petroglyphs were still common though, and some cultures continued using them much longer, even until contact with Western culture was made in the 20th century. Petroglyphs have been found in all parts of the globe except Antarctica with highest concentrations in parts of Africa, Scandinavia, Siberia, southwestern North America and Australia.

[edit] Interpretation

There are many theories to explain their purpose, depending on their location, age, and the type of image. Petroglyphs are often thought to be astronomical markers, maps, and other forms of symbolic communication, including a form of "pre-writing". They might also have been a by-product of other rituals: sites in India, for example, have been identified as musical instruments or "rock gongs". [1]

Petroglyph images probably had deep cultural and religious significance for the societies that created them; in many cases this significance remains for their descendants. Many petroglyphs are thought to represent some kind of not-yet-fully understood symbolic or ritual language. Later glyphs from the Nordic Bronze Age in Scandinavia seem to refer to some form of territorial boundary between tribes, in addition to possible religious meanings. It also appears that local or regional dialects from similar or neighboring peoples exist. The Siberian inscriptions almost look like some early form of runes, although there is not thought to be any relationship between them. They are not yet well understood.

Some researchers have noticed the resemblance of different styles of petroglyphs across different continents; while it is expected that all people would be inspired by their surroundings, it is harder to explain the common styles. This could be mere coincidence, an indication that certain groups of people migrated widely from some initial common area, or indication of a common origin. In 1853 George Tate read a paper to the Berwick Naturalists' Club at which a Mr John Collingwood Bruce agreed that the carvings had "... a common origin, and indicate a symbolic meaning, representing some popular thought." [2] In his cataloguing of Scottish rock art, Ronald Morris summarised 104 different theories on their interpretation. [3].

Other, more controversial, explanations are mostly grounded in Jungian psychology and the views of Mircea Eliade. According to these theories it is possible that the similarity of petroglyphs (and other atavistic or archetypal symbols) from different cultures and continents is a result of the genetically inherited structure of the human brain.

Other theories suggest that petroglyphs were made by shamans in an altered state of consciousness[4], perhaps induced by the use of natural hallucinogens. Many of the geometric patterns (known as form constants) which recur in petroglyphs and cave paintings have been shown to be "hard-wired" into the human brain; they frequently occur in visual disturbances and hallucinations brought on by drugs, migraine and other stimuli.

Present-day links between shamanism and rock-art amongst the San people of the Kalahari desert have been studied by the Rock Art Research Institute (RARI) of the University of the Witwatersrand [1]. Though the San people's artworks are predominantly paintings, the beliefs behind them can perhaps be used as a basis for understanding other types of rock art, including petroglyphs. To quote from the RARI website:

Using knowledge of San beliefs, researchers have shown that the art played a fundamental part in the religious lives of its San painters. The art captured things from the San’s world behind the rock-face: the other world inhabited by spirit creatures, to which dancers could travel in animal form, and where people of ecstasy could draw power and bring it back for healing, rain-making and capturing the game.

[edit] The West Virginia controversy

The West Virginia glyphs are worth noting for the controversy that erupted over them in the 1980s. Barry Fell, a retired professor of marine biology at Harvard University, published an article in 1983, describing how he had deciphered petroglyphs in several places in southern West Virginia to have been written in Ogam, an Irish Celtic script dating back to the 6th to 8th century AD, and that they were in fact a detailed description of the nativity of Christ. [2] Fell is noted as promoting a theory of North America as having been visited by Irish, Iberian, Libyan, and Egyptian explorers "some 2,000 to 2,500 years ago".

In fact, Fell's methods involved an almost arbitrary grouping of markings, an interpretation of them as the only consonants of Ogam, and the addition of vowels and horizontal stem lines where he saw fit. This allowed him to decide which of three consonants each glyph should represent. Fell's work was subsequently debunked by linguists and archaeologists from several countries [3], to which Fell responded by accusing them of being "too damn lazy" to read his writings, and of being "ignorant".

Even those who agreed with Fell's interpretation of the marks as being Ogam disagree with his translation. Edo Nyland believed the "inscription" at Horse Creek to be in Basque and translated it very differently, as a description of a bison hunt. For instance, the section which Fell translates as "A happy season is Christmas, a time of joy and goodwill to all people." is given by Nyland (1996) as "Club blows in abundant measure (were needed) because many which had fallen into the ravine resisted with obviously broken legs. Brothers, come and help the slaughterer to finish them off." [4] Any interpretation which leads to such radically different interpretations should be treated with caution. Unfortunately, Fell's dubious Ogam theory has influenced many subsequent interpretations of carvings and paintings all over America.

[edit] List of petroglyph sites

[edit] Africa

[edit] Australia

[edit] Asia

[edit] China

[edit] India

[edit] Kazakhstan

[edit] Korea

[edit] Kyrgyzstan

  • Several sites, mostly in the Tien Shan mountains; Cholpon-Ata, the Talas valley, Siymaliytash (Saimaluu-Tash), and on the rock outcrop called Suleiman's Throne in Osh in the Fergana valley

[edit] Pakistan

[edit] Philippines

[edit] Pacific

[edit] South America

[edit] North America

[edit] Europe

[edit] Middle East

[edit] Notes

  1. Ancient Indians made 'rock music', BBC News Friday, 19 March, 2004
  2. J. Collingwood Bruce (1868; cited in Beckensall, S., Northumberland's Prehistoric Rock Carvings: A Mystery Explained. Pendulum Publications, Rothbury, Northumberland. 1983:19)
  3. Ronald Morris, The Prehistoric Rock Art of Galloway and The Isle of Man (ISBN 978-0-7137-0974-2 , Blandford Press 1979
  4. [see Lewis-Williams, D. 2002. A Cosmos in Stone: Interpreting Religion and Society through Rock Art. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, Ca.]
  5. Keyser, James D. (July 1992). Indian Rock Art of the Columbia Plateau. University of Washington Press, 139pp.. ISBN 978-0295971605. 

[edit] See also

[edit] Further reading

  • Beckensall, Stan and Laurie, Tim, Prehistoric Rock Art of County Durham, Swaledale and Wensleydale, County Durham Books, 1998 ISBN 1-897585-45-4
  • Beckensall, Stan, Prehistoric Rock Art in Northumberland, Tempus Publishing, 2001 ISBN 0-7524-1945-5

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

[edit] Original Source

Original content from Wikipedia underGNU Free Documentation License. See fulldisclaimer.

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#23 [url]

Mar 25 13 10:28 AM

Irish Translation Forum

Ask for Irish Gaelic translations on this English to Irish, Irish to English translator forum.
Irish language translations given on this voluntary community site cannot be guaranteed to be correct. Always ask for a second or third opinion, especially for requests for tattoos, wedding rings, etc.

Ogham(Irish script) West Virginia 6th-8th Century A.D

Moderator: Moderators - Módhnóirí

Author Message
March 06 2009, 10:46 AM

In 1981, archaeologist Robert L. Pyle of Morgantown, West Virginia began exploring the mountains of southern part of the state studying petroglyphs (markings on stone) that at first glance resembled archaic runes and were different from traditional ancient American rock carvings. His archaeological research focused on petroglyph sites in Wyoming County, West Virginia, and Manchester, Kentucky. Research indicated the markings were an ancient alphabet known as Ogam (or Ogham) ... troglyphs/

March 07 2009, 0:06 AM
Go raibh míle maith agat, a fhearglas/ Thank you very much, fearglas

Though it's worth pointing out that the Native Americans were on the continent before anyone else. :ja:;D:mrgreen:
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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#24 [url]

Mar 25 13 10:33 AM

part six


Ballinloughan, county Louth

Maps or magic ?

text and photographs
by Anthony Weir


Although some of the engraved and sculpted stones of passage-tombs are complicated, many have simple designs very similar to those on boulders and rock-outcrops around the periphery of Ireland.

Rossacoosane, county Kerry

These petroglyphs or rock-scribings (or rock-art), generally assigned to the Bronze Age, may share at least some functions and concerns with the art of the Neolithic passage-tombs. They may be purely derivative, or they may represent an independent (though obviously related) tradition of lithomancy. Their distribution around the coastline at different altitudes recalls the littoral origin of passage-tombs, and their function is perhaps more mysterious, if less varied.

Staigue Bridge, county Kerry

While littoral rock-scribings on La Palma in the Canary Islands are very similar to Breton and Irish passage-tomb designs (particularly those at Sess Kilgreen in Tyrone), they and the Irish petroglyphs are very different from the petroglyphs of southern Sweden and Norway representing ithyphallic hunters, game, sun-wheels and boats (see right). Some of the Irish and British petroglyphs more resemble pictographs such as the traffic-signs and concourse-notices that occur everywhere today.

They are also unrelated to the crude criss-cross patterns found very occasionally at or in court-, portal- and wedge-tombs...

Ballyrenan, county Tyrone

...and, in one instance, on a rock face.

Tinure, county Louth

But they are obviously related to the cup-marks which evolved from natural solution-pits in rock and boulders, and which were sometimes enhanced by surrounding rings.


The upper surface of the front roofstone
on a wedge-tomb at Burren, county Cavan.

Click on the picture to see the tomb.

As at other Atlantic sites such as Galicia and the Canary Islands, Irish "rock art" occurs not only close to the coast and at sea-level (like the examples in SW Scotland) but as high up as 200 metres or more, and as much as 10 kilometres inland. (In Galicia they occur up to 30 kilometres from the sea.)

Derrynablaha, county Kerry

Ballinloughan, county Louth

Rathgeran, county Carlow

They are never extensive like some in Argyll which cover up to 1800 square metres.

Like the other Atlantic petroglyphs they are mostly on horizontal outcrops or on table-like surfaces of boulders. They were originally painted with earth and charcoal colours: ochre, red and black - as might have been the passage-tomb engravings, too.

Ballybane, county Cork

And like the far more numerous stone circles, they are nearly always carved where there is a panorama or a wide open view.

Coomasaharn, county Kerry

One exception occurs in county Kerry, which has the highest concentration of Irish petroglyphs.

Ballynahow Beg, county Kerry

Another occurs in the other county of high petroglyphic concentration: Donegal.

Carrowreagh (Doagh Isle) county Donegal

They also occur on the vertical surfaces of standing-stones which are the principal or marker stones of alignments.

Barnes Lower, county Donegal

But petroglyphs are not obviously"cultic" like the relatively easy-to-interpret stones of the Iron Age - of which our culture is a hugely-enhanced extension.

National Museum, Dublin

The most frequent motif is the cup-and-ring, or cup and partial ring (sometimes with a tail which always points downwards) and surfaces with this motif tend to occur near places where copper or gold ores were mined. Hence the possibility that they are priestly-prospectors' maps or signposts. (A famous carved rock face at Valcamonica in N Lombardy - nowhere near the sea - is thought to be a map showing buildings, streams, paths and fields.)

One site at least has sun-viewing significance twice a year, so this also must be reckoned with.

Boheh, county Mayo

Other petroglyphic motifs, such as the multiple concentric ring and the multiple concentric lozenge which occur frequently in passage-tombs, have been found on the lower surfaces of the covers of kist-tombs - which sometimes have come from elsewhere and re-used or adapted for funerary use.

click on the picture to see a typical kist

Detail of the inner surface of the cover-stone of a kist from Ballinvally, county Meath, photographed at the National Museum of Ireland.

Might this have been (or become) a mystic map for a dead soul ?

Kist-tombs were built from earliest times right through the Bronze Age.

The significance of petroglyphs remains largely enigmatic. The semiotics of the equal-armed cross in our culture, for example, include first aid, x-marks-the-spot, crossroads, Christianity (especially Orthodox), and the mathematical plus sign - all unrelated. So the multiple concentric circle might have meant various things at different places to different people at different times.

Churchtown, county Down

It is now thought that the earliest, most 'primitive' petroglyphs: patterns of dots (cupmarks), sun-bursts, grid-patterns, spirals, zig-zags, snake-forms and wavy lines, are phosphenic or entoptic: i.e. they are influenced by the 'visions' we get when we rub our eyes briskly and keep them shut, or when hallucinating. Such designs occur all over the world, and in both passage-tomb and rock-surface designs in Ireland. More complicated designs are usually developments of these phosphenic 'elements'. But, of course, as I mentioned above, patterns of dots, in the form of solution-pits, occur naturally in rock.

Certainly they had a 'mystic' and 'ritual' significance which fitted in with funeral rites, early astronomy and metal-mining. They are also part of a common Atlantic seaboard (or edge-of-the-known-world) culture which persists today in the striking similarities of character in people inhabiting a littoral line passing from Norway around Scotland and Ireland, across to Cornwall and over to Brittany, across the Bay of Biscay to Asturias and Portugalicia, and on to the Canary Islands off the Moroccan coast. Petroglyphs of probably-similar date also occur at least as far south as Gabon.

Magheranaul, county Donegal

A connection with bullauns is likely. And if bullaun-like stones in Africa have been used to attract rain, then, in the Irish climate which deteriorated so much in the Early Bronze Age, both cup-marks and bullauns could have been attempts to attract the sun.

Baltynanima, county Wicklow

But their interest lies mainly in their appeal and surprise to the eye. In an island where you might have to drive at least ten miles to find something beautiful made by man (unlike many parts of rural Europe where you have to drive at least ten miles to find an ugly building), petroglyphic rocks and stones are especially delightful - even if, like the one pictured above, it was irreverently dumped at the edge of a field and lost for several years, before being placed in a private back-yard.

for a collection of superb photos of petroglyphs from all over Ireland see
Ken Williams' Website




This page is also on the
developed from this website, with many more photographs.


Psychoacoustic influences of the echoing environments of prehistoric art 

by Steven J. Waller, Ph.D.

Cave paintings and ancient petroglyphs around the world are typically found in echo rich locations such as caves, canyons, and rocky cliff faces. Analysis of field data shows that echo decibel levels at a large number of prehistoric art sites are higher than those at non-decorated locations. The selection of these echoing environments by the artists appears not to be a mere coincidence. This paper considers the perception of an echoed sound as a psychoacoustic event that would have been inexplicable to ancient humans. A variety of ancient legends from cultures on several continents attribute the phenomenon of echoes to supernatural beings. These legends, together with the quantitative data, strongly implicate echoing as relevant to the artists of the past. The notion that the echoes were caused by spirits within the rock would explain not only the unusual locations of prehistoric art, but also the perplexing subject matter. For example, the common theme of hoofed animal imagery could have been inspired by echoes of percussion noises perceived as hoof beats. Further systematic acoustical studies of prehistoric art sites is warranted. Conservation of the natural acoustic properties of rock art environments - a previously unrecognized need - is urged.

A new area for acoustic research has arisen from a previously unsuspected relationship between ancient legends of echoes, and prehistoric art. Could echoes have been a motivational influence for the ancient artists? Acoustic studies at archaeological sites may be starting to answer this important question.

To illustrate the universal perception of echoes being attributed to a supernatural phenomenon in the ancient world, some examples of ethnographically-recorded legends are listed below:

- The classical Greeks numbered among their deities a nymph called Echo (Bonnefoy 1992).

- From the South Pacific: “Echo as the bodiless voice, is the earliest of all existence” (Jobes 1961:490)

- A Paiute legend states that "witches have lived in snakeskins and hidden among rocks, from which they take great delight in repeating the words of passersby." (Gill and Sullivan 1992:79)

- The Book of the Hopi describes the importance of a mythological being named Echo in the creation story (Williamson 1984).

Based on documented legends that echoes were considered to be caused by spirits, it is theorized (Waller 1993a,b) that sound reflecting locations were perceived as the dwelling places of these echoing spirits. Special echoing places - such as caves, canyons, rock shelters, cliffs and stony mountainsides - where spirits dwelt and audibly responded to mortals would undoubtedly have been considered sacred sites. It would not be surprising then to find evidence that ritualistic activities had been conducted at such sacred echoing sites around the world, and had been decorated by the artists of those ancient cultures. Has archaeological evidence of homage been found in these types of echoing locations?

The answer is a resounding “YES!”. There are hundreds of Paleolithic caves in Europe with prehistoric paintings and engravings deep within. In Africa and Australia there are thousands of painted rock shelters. In America the canyons of the Southwest contain thousands upon thousands of ancient petroglyphs and pictographs. See Figure 1 for an example of rock art in the form of mysterious petroglyphs.

click to continue




The photos and text of these pages are anti-copyright by
was published in 1980, quickly sold out,
and was never reprinted.


go back


A special Appendix of superb photos (with grid and/or GPS references) by Ken Williams
of the more recondite petroglyphs Ireland-wide
is included in the

developed from this website.





Click on the thumbnails for high-resolution pictures.



Tanum, southern Sweden.











"The best of Man is his Ruins..."

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#25 [url]

Mar 25 13 10:34 AM
America's oldest motion pictures, Discovered

Gemini inscription and Noble Twins animation "north of 37°N latitude, about 103°W longitude, 8 August 471 CE -- North America's first datable, historical record was inscribed today to memorialize a rare astronomical event. The Indo-European explorer who wrote it had just witnessed three planets aligned on the ecliptic in the vicinity of the Gemini constellation in the pre-dawn hours of the sacred Lughnasad cross quarter holiday. More than fifteen centuries will pass before the sandstone engravings will be found on the high plains of southeastern Colorado and interpreted using consonantal Ogham, an ancient Celtic alphabet."
So could have read a dateline and lead paragraph if the technology for worldwide news dispatches and a gift for knowing the future existed then. Our ability to probe America's past is real, yet an academic mindset that counts only Indians before Columbus is archaeology's myopia, inhibiting consideration of parallel, historic probabilities worthy of scholarly interest.
Old News examines discoveries over the past 25 years that indicate Plains Indians had visitors from the far side of the Atlantic a thousand years before Columbus sailed from Iberia. More than a half dozen archaeoastronomical panels are documented with timelapse film and videography on the equinoxes, the summer solstice and Lughnasad. Only after translations of the associated grooved writings were these solar alignments first observed. We examine the nature of Irish Ogham and how it compares to the consonantal variety found in America, show the sort of explosive reaction this subject ignites among American archaeologists, follow a researcher as he applies his nuclear chemical analysis to dating some Ogham rock writings, propose that these foreigners may have worshipped Mithras revealed by their layered iconography and specific Indo-European star charts detailing Mithras' regulation of orderly celestial cycles, discuss the humanity of these powerful discoveries, and conclude with a postscript suggesting an even earlier expedition from a seaport on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula based on the unique Dhofari alphabet found on other heavily patinated rocks in America's heartland.
Crack Cave
in 2005 spectators gather to
see Ogham inside Crack Cave
lit up by spring equinox dawn
noon sun dagger at Pathfinder
noon sun dagger pierces
phallic & female glyphs
on fall equinox of 2004

2005 spring equinox dawn at Crack Cave
Old News also introduces a Native American equinox site known as The Pathfinder with a midday sun dagger, much longer than the USA's most famous archaeoastronomy by the Anasazi on Fajada Butte. An equinox sun ray targets a set of petroglyphs seemingly inspired by the Navajo creation legend of Changing Woman and her pseudonym or sister deity, White Shell Woman, impregnated by advancing sun rays while reclining, legs spread, once on a rock and again in a shallow pool of water.

85¼ minute documentary        ©2005 TransVision
director's note: in the audio and video clips presented herein, I pronounce the first letter in the word Celtic with a soft S rather than a hard K. This is intentional and, I believe, faithful to linguistic tradition. Fetch Barry Fell's pronouncement on pronunciation.

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#26 [url]

Mar 25 13 11:00 AM

Ancient Egyptians in America


       About 3,000 years ago, the mummified body of Henut Taui was laid to rest in a desert tomb of ancient Egypt. 


       During her long sleep, Rome rose and fell, the dark ages came and went, Europeans from Napoleon to the Brits conquered her home land, and finally in the early 1800s, the immortality her embalmers had sought for her was attained when her tomb was plundered. Her body, preserved to the consistency of Beef Jerky, found its way to Germany, a museum in Munich, and during toxicological testing in the 1990s was found to contain large amounts of Cocaine and Tobacco , Cocaine and Tobacco are found only in New World plants, and logically should not have been attained by Ancient Egyptians without contact with America. 


 Some  possibilities:


       There was significant trade between the Americas and Ancient Egypt to allow Cocaine and Tobacco to find its way into circulation. Cocaine and Tobacco once grew in the Old World as well, but later became extinct in these regions. The tissue samples are tainted by later contact with cocaine users, smokers, and potheads Henut Taui is a time traveling Crack head.


       Dr Svelta Balabanova a highly respected forensic toxologist and the inventor of several highly sensitive drug specific tests which are today's standards in establishing drug use, took samples from several mummies, including Egyptian Pharaoh Ramses the Great. Not only was the presence of Cocaine and Tobacco established, but Cannabis as well. Apparently pot and cocaine use was fairly common among the Egyptian elite of antiquity.


       Dr Michele Lescott from the Museum of Natural History in Paris, among others has duplicated the Balabanova test results .It has long been known that the Egyptians used a variety of drugs, this is not in question. However, the presence of the Cocaine and Tobacco in the bodies of these ancient Egyptians establishes a link between Old World and New, many Centuries before the accepted conservative dating that establishment scholars propose.



The Parahyba Inscription


       We are sons of Canaan from Sidon, the city of the king. Commerce has cast us on this distant shore, a land of mountains. We set [sacrificed] a youth for the exalted gods and goddesses in the nineteenth year of Hiram, our mighty king. We embarked from Ezion-Geber into the Red Sea and voyaged with ten ships. We were at sea together for two years around the land belonging to Ham [Africa] but were separated by a storm [lit. 'from the hand of Baal'], and we were no longer with our companions. So we have come here, twelve men and three women, on a shore, which I, the Admiral, control. But auspiciously may the gods or goddesses favor us!






       Dr. Wallace began studying the mtDNA of Native Americans in the mid-1980s in hopes of resolving a long-raging debate over when prehistoric peoples entered the Americas. The presumption long has been that the ancestors of Native Americans came from Siberia. But anthropologists have argued for year over how many, and when such migrations occurred.

       The mtDNA analyses are showing that the ancestors of the Amerinds, who comprise most Native Americans, entered the Americans in a single migratory wave 20,000 to 40,000 years ago, Dr. Wallace and his Emory colleagues ... reported last year. This puts humans in the Americas long before a fluted stone-spear point--the oldest American tool ever found--was dropped by a prehistoric dweller near Clovis, N.M., 11,000 years ago.

       The researchers also found that ancestors of the Navajo, Apache and other members of a Native American group, known collectively as the Na-Dene, are latecomers; they entered the continent in a second migration a mere 5,000 to 10,000 years ago, the research indicates.




       In December 1989, it was reported that an American explorer in Peru's highland jungles had found evidence that indicated king Solomon's legendary gold mines may have been in that region. The explorer, Gene Savoy, declared that he had found three stone tablets containing the first writing found from the ancient civilizations of the Andes. The inscriptions, he reported, are similar to Phoenician and Hebrew hieroglyphs!


       Reports the San Francisco Chronicle: "The hieroglyphs on the tablets are similar to those used in King Solomon's time and include one identical to the symbol that always appeared on the ships he sent to the legendary land of Ophir, which the Bible described as the source of his gold, Savoy said"


       Savoy is no newcomer to archaeological discoveries. He was the discoverer of the last Inca city of Vilcabamba in 1964. Savoy declared that the three tablets each weigh several tons and measure about 5 by 10 feet. They were found in a cave near Gran Vilaya, the immense ruins of the Chachapoyas Indian civilization that he discovered in 1985.


       Savoy said he found three tablets, each weighing several tons and measuring about 5 by 10 feet, in August in a cave near Gran Vilaya, the immense ruins of the Chachapoyas Indian civilization he discovered in 1985.


       The Gran Vilaya ruins are 400 miles north of Lima and 9,000 feet above sea level in a fog-shrouded region of the Andes that Peruvians call the "jungle's eyebrow." Savoy [1]  displayed photos of the tablets, which he said remain in the cave, and sketches of rubbings taken from the stones. He pointed out the similarities between the stylized inscriptions and samples of Phoenician hier-oglyphs.


       The hieroglyphs on the tablets are similar to those used in King Solomon's time and include one identical to the symbol that always appeared on the ships he sent to the legendary land of Ophir, which the Bible described as the source of his gold, Savoy said.


Note: [1] Deseret News,  Dec. 10, 1989


Hebrews in the Americas


       Dr. Joseph Mahan in Atlanta, Georgia, an expert in ancient Indian ethnology of the southeastern Indians of the United States.noted that Indian legends, of the Yuchis, state that they migrated to the area of Florida and Georgia from the region of the Bahamas. According to their legends, the island sank beneath the sea and they fled for their live Later the Yuchis ,  migrated to the Oklahoma territory, where they eventually settled .


       The Yuchis have a custom that is unique among the American Indians. They are racially and linguistically different from their neighbors. Every year on the fifteenth day of the sacred month of harvest, in the fall, they make a pilgrimage. For eight days they live in "booths" with roofs open to the sky, covered with branches and leaves and foliage. During this festival, they dance around the sacred fire, and called upon the name of God.


       The ancient Israelites had the virtually identical custom, in many respects. In the harvest season in the fall, on the 15th day of the sacred month of harvest (the seventh month), they celebrate the "festival of booths" for eight days. During this time they lived in temporary booths, covered with branches, leaves, fronds. This festival goes back to the time of Moses and the Exodus from ancient Egypt (Leviticus 23). It is intriguingly fascinating that two totally separated peoples could observe the same custom.


       Dr. Cyrus Gordon, of Brandeis University in Boston, indicated that he was privileged to sit in on one of the fall harvest festivals of the Yuchi Indians, and listened to their chants, songs, and sacred ceremonies. An expert in Hebrew, Minoan, and many Middle Eastern languages, he was incredulous. As he listened, he exclaimed to his companion, "They are speaking the Hebrew names for God!"


Some Mysteries


       More and more, scholars are coming to admit that peoples from the Middle East reached the New World long before Columbus or the Vikings. One stone, found at Fort Benning, Georgia, has unusual markings all over it. Professor Stanislav Segert, professor of Semitic languages at the University of Prague, has identified the markings on the stone as a script of the second millennium before the Messiah, from the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete!


Minoan inscriptions in New England


       Dr. Cyrus Gordon indicated that Jews were in America in ancient times. The inscription on the stone, he asserts, is in the writing style of Canaan, the promised land of the Hebrews. Concludes Gordon, whom I interviewed at his old, New England style home in the suburbs of Boston: "There is no doubt that these findings, and others, reflect Bronze Age transatlantic communication between the Mediterranean and the New World around the middle of the second millennium B.C."


       In 1968 Manfred Metcalf was looking for slabs to build a barbeque pit. Several strange-looking, flat rocks caught his eye; he picked up a large flat piece of sandstone about nine inches long, brushed it off, and noticed odd markings on it. Metcalf gave the stone to Dr. Joseph B. Mahan, Jr., Director of Education and Research at the nearby Columbus Museum of Arts and Crafts at Columbus, Georgia. Mahan sent a copy of the stone to Cyrus Gordon. Gordon reported: "After studying the inscription, it was apparent to me that the affinities of the script were with the Aegean syllabify, whose two best known forms are Minoan Linear A, and Mycenaean Linear B.



  Cretan Double-Axe


The double-axe in the lower left corner is of course reminiscent of Minoan civilization.


       The single vertical lines remind us of the vertical lines standing each for the numeral '1' in the Aegean syllabify; while the little circles stand for '100.'"





       Gordon concluded:" We therefore have American inscriptional contacts with the Aegean of the Bronze Age, near the south, west and north shores of the Gulf of Mexico. This can hardly be accidental; ancient Aegean writing near three different sectors of the Gulf reflects Bronze Age Trans-Atlantic communication between the Mediterranean and the New World around the middle of the second millennium B.C."


       Gordon offered the exciting thought, "The Aegean analogues to Mayan writing, to the Aztec glyphs, and to the Metcalf Stone, inspire the hope that the deciphered scripts of the Mediterranean may provide keys for unlocking the forgotten systems of writing in the New World. A generation capable of landing men on the moon, may also be able to place pre-Columbian Americas within the framework of world history" (Manuscripts, summer of 1969).


       Further proof that Trans-Atlantic travel and communication existed in the Bronze Age, in the middle of the second millennium B.C., during the time of David and Solomon, and before, comes to us from South America.


Phoenicians in Brazil – Paraiba Insciptions


       In 1872 a slave belonging of Joaquim Alves de Costa, found a broken stone tablet in the tropical rain forests of Brazil's Paraiba state. Baffled by the strange markings on the stone, Costa's son, who was a draftsman, made a copy of it and sent it to the Brazilian Emperor's Council of State. The stone came to the attention of Ladislau Netto, director of the national museum. He was convinced of the inscription's authenticity and made a crude translation of it. Contemporary scholars scoffed. The very thought of Phoenicians reaching Brazil thousands of years before Columbus was viewed with disdain. Few scholars took the stone at all seriously.


       In 1966 Dr. Jules Piccus, professor of romance languages at the University of Massachusetts, bought an old scrapbook at a rummage sale containing a letter written by Netto in 1874, which contained his translations of the markings on the stone and a tracing of the original copy he had received from Costa's son. Intrigued, Dr. Piccus brought the material to the attention of Cyrus H. Gordon. Dr. Gordon, the head of the Department of Mediterranean Studies at Brandeis and an expert in ancient Semitic languages, as well as author of some 13 books, was amazed. He compared the Paraiba inscription with the latest work on Phoenician writings. He discovered that it contained nuances and quirks of Phoenician style that could not have been known to a 19th century forger. The writings had to be genuine!


       Gordon translated the inscription as follows: "We are Sidonian Canaanites from the city of the Mercantile King. We were cast up on this distant shore, a land of mountains. We sacrificed a youth to the celestial gods and goddesses in the nineteenth year of our mighty King Hiram and embarked from Ezion-geber into the Red Sea. We voyaged with ten ships and were at sea together for two years around Africa. Then we were separated by the hand of Baal and were no longer with our companions. So we have come here, twelve men and three women, into New Shore. Am I, the Admiral, a man who would flee? Nay! May the celestial gods and goddesses favor us well!"


King Solomon/s Navy


       Cyrus Gordon believes the king mentioned in the script can be identified as Hiram III who reigned 553-533 B.C. The inscription seems to verify an unusual statement found in the Old Testament. An ancient Biblical chronicler wrote:


       "And King Solomon made a navy of ships in Ezion-geber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red sea, in the land of Edom. And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea, with the servants of Solomon. And they came to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to king Solomon" (I Kings 9:26-28).


       In the days of Solomon there was an alliance between Hiram, the king of Tyre and the Israelites under Solomon. They were not only allies, but very friendly toward one another (II Chronicles 2:2-12). Israelites and Phoenicians even worked together to build the Temple of YEHOVAH God in Jerusalem (vs.13-18). This alliance included shipping together, although the Phoenicians were known to jealously guard the secrets of oceanic navigation from other nations. We read in II Chronicles 8, beginning verse 8:


       "Then went Solomon to Ezion-geber  and to Eloth, at the sea side in the land of Edom. And Huram sent him by the hands of his servants ships, and servants that had knowledge of the sea; and they went with the servants of Solomon to Ophir, and took thence four hundred and fifty talents of gold, and brought them to king Solomon" (v. 17-18).  In the heyday of Solomon silver was "not any thing accounted of" (11 Chron. 9:20).


       We read, "And the king made silver in Jerusalem as stones, and cedar trees made he as the sycomore trees that are in the low plains in abundance" (v. 27). Solomon had his own personal fleets and dominated world trade. "And king Solomon passed all the kings of the earth in riches and wisdom" (v. 22).


       There is archaeological evidence, in fact, that the fleets of Solomon and Hiram of Tyre circumnavigated the globe, sailing from Ezion-geber, a port at the terminus of the Red Sea, near modern Aqaba or Eliat! Hebrew customs, discovered by the early English settlers in the Americas, were found among some of the Indian tribes, including the wearing of phylacteries! Minoan and Phoenician coins have been found, and inscriptions of ancient Phoenician and Minoan scripts, in Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and the Star of David was even found in an ancient ruin of the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico! In the middle of the second millennium, B.C., and down to the time of Solomon, circa 1000 B.C., oceanic travel by maritime powers in the Middle East seems to have been fairly common.




       Another significant Hebrew locale is in the Purgatoire River Valley, located due south of La Junta, Colorado, where the oldest written inscriptions in the US are found. (ca.1750 BCE. conservatively), from the earliest Ligature phase of word-formation by ‘tying letters together into a picture’.  These have YaH inscriptions identifiable with the Exodus people.


       The actual massive rock that appears like a small ship with cleared keel (maybe what attracted his attention to it), of the volcanic basalt from the top Tertiary shelf is a remnant of geological prehistory, which fell two-thirds of the way don the mountain to become what now has stood ground for 2,500 or more years as a massive "Mezuzah" (Bible script found at every Jewish doorway).  St at a right angle to the left of the main entry before a natural gateway to this ancient site with Altar having the same writing but exactly the opposite angle Leftward unto facing the River where it is flowing in a strait line perfectly perpendicular to it.


       Being the largest of only three ’10 Commandments Stones found anywhere in the world. The others being the “Ogio Decalogue” a much smaller example in a unique type of the post exile Jewish square script and another one of the ”Michigan Artifacts” found written in a Cuneform style of Hebrew graphics!), and therefore most worthy of copy, these are made utilizing the complete Alphabet, the best example of the print closest to that writing of the original tablets, as the Paleo is the only Hebrew having an equal size characters letter set which plotting on both sides of two tablets according to the accounts would have required.


       These re-makes of it, are correct down to the very angle it sets at, but without the ancient scribe’s mistake of overlooking a part afterward realized and inserted with (a diacritical mark ^ ) with the corrected spelling of a couple of the words and addition of yet a couple more he passed up for an accurate to Exodus 20 readable abridgement of the full Decalogue. (see Exodus 20 next page)


Exodus Chapter 20 שְׁמוֹת

א  וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים, אֵת כָּל-הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה לֵאמֹר.  {ס}

1 And God spoke all these words, saying: {S}

ב  אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים:  לֹא-יִהְיֶה לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים, עַל-פָּנָי.

2 I am the LORD thy God, who brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me.

ג  לֹא-תַעֲשֶׂה לְךָ פֶסֶל, וְכָל-תְּמוּנָה, אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל, וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת--וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם, מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ.

3 Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;

ד  לֹא-תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם, וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם:  כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, אֵל קַנָּא--פֹּקֵד עֲו‍ֹן אָבֹת עַל-בָּנִים עַל-שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל-רִבֵּעִים, לְשֹׂנְאָי.

4 thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;

ה  וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד, לַאֲלָפִים--לְאֹהֲבַי, וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי מִצְו‍ֹתָי.  {ס}

5 and showing mercy unto the thousandth generation of them that love Me and keep My commandments. {S}

ו  לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת-שֵׁם-יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ, לַשָּׁוְא:  כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה, אֵת אֲשֶׁר-יִשָּׂא אֶת-שְׁמוֹ לַשָּׁוְא.  {פ}

6 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain. {P}

ז  זָכוֹר אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת, לְקַדְּשׁוֹ.

7 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.

ח  שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד, וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּל-מְלַאכְתֶּךָ.

8 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work;

ט  וְיוֹם, הַשְּׁבִיעִי--שַׁבָּת, לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ:  לֹא-תַעֲשֶׂה כָל-מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ וּבִתֶּךָ, עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ וּבְהֶמְתֶּךָ, וְגֵרְךָ, אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ.

9 but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates;

י  כִּי שֵׁשֶׁת-יָמִים עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֶת-הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֶת-הָאָרֶץ, אֶת-הַיָּם וְאֶת-כָּל-אֲשֶׁר-בָּם, וַיָּנַח, בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי; עַל-כֵּן, בֵּרַךְ יְהוָה אֶת-יוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת--וַיְקַדְּשֵׁהוּ.  {ס}

10 for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. {S}

יא  כַּבֵּד אֶת-אָבִיךָ, וְאֶת-אִמֶּךָ--לְמַעַן, יַאֲרִכוּן יָמֶיךָ, עַל הָאֲדָמָה, אֲשֶׁר-יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ.  {ס}

11 Honour thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee. {S}

יב  לֹא תִרְצָח,  {ס}  לֹא תִנְאָף;  {ס}  לֹא תִגְנֹב,  {ס}  לֹא-תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁקֶר.  {ס}

12 Thou shalt not murder. {S} Thou shalt not commit adultery. {S} Thou shalt not steal. {S} Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. {S}

יג  לֹא תַחְמֹד, בֵּית רֵעֶךָ;  {ס}  לֹא-תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ, וְעַבְדּוֹ וַאֲמָתוֹ וְשׁוֹרוֹ וַחֲמֹרוֹ, וְכֹל, אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ.  {פ}

13 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house; {S} thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's. {P}

יד  וְכָל-הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת-הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת-הַלַּפִּידִם, וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר, וְאֶת-הָהָר, עָשֵׁן; וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ, וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק.

14 And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off.

טו  וַיֹּאמְרוּ, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה, דַּבֵּר-אַתָּה עִמָּנוּ, וְנִשְׁמָעָה; וְאַל-יְדַבֵּר עִמָּנוּ אֱלֹהִים, פֶּן-נָמוּת.

15 And they said unto Moses: 'Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die.'

טז  וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל-הָעָם, אַל-תִּירָאוּ, כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם, בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים; וּבַעֲבוּר, תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל-פְּנֵיכֶם--לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ.

16 And Moses said unto the people: 'Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.'

יז  וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם, מֵרָחֹק; וּמֹשֶׁה נִגַּשׁ אֶל-הָעֲרָפֶל, אֲשֶׁר-שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים.  {ס}

17 And the people stood afar off; but Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was. {S}

יח  וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל-מֹשֶׁה, כֹּה תֹאמַר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:  אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם--כִּי מִן-הַשָּׁמַיִם, דִּבַּרְתִּי עִמָּכֶם.

18 And the LORD said unto Moses: Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel: Ye yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.

יט  לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן, אִתִּי:  אֱלֹהֵי כֶסֶף וֵאלֹהֵי זָהָב, לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם.

19 Ye shall not make with Me--gods of silver, or gods of gold, ye shall not make unto you.

כ  מִזְבַּח אֲדָמָה, תַּעֲשֶׂה-לִּי, וְזָבַחְתָּ עָלָיו אֶת-עֹלֹתֶיךָ

ְאֶת-שְׁלָמֶיךָ, אֶת-צֹאנְךָ וְאֶת-בְּקָרֶךָ; בְּכָל-הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַזְכִּיר אֶת-שְׁמִי, אָבוֹא אֵלֶיךָ וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ.

20 An altar of earth thou shalt make unto Me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy peace-offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen; in every place where I cause My name to be mentioned I will come unto thee and bless thee.

כא  וְאִם-מִזְבַּח אֲבָנִים תַּעֲשֶׂה-לִּי, לֹא-תִבְנֶה אֶתְהֶן גָּזִית:  כִּי חַרְבְּךָ הֵנַפְתָּ עָלֶיהָ, וַתְּחַלְלֶהָ.

21 And if thou make Me an altar of stone, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones; for if thou lift up thy tool upon it, thou hast profaned it.

כב  וְלֹא-תַעֲלֶה בְמַעֲלֹת, עַל-מִזְבְּחִי:  אֲשֶׁר לֹא-תִגָּלֶה עֶרְוָתְךָ, עָלָיו.  {פ}

22 Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered thereon. {P}


Source: [email protected]




       There are a surprising number instances that appear to corroborate the fact that Israelites  had visited the American continents for thousands of years.


       Other inscriptions, also written in Paleo-Hebrew, have been discovered in the states of Iowa, Ohio, and Tennessee, as well as in Brazil.


       In Newark, Ohio, a carved stone of interesting workmanship was discovered, which also bears an engraved inscription of the Ten Commandments of the Covenant, written in Paleo-Hebrew.  At a site known as Bat Creek Cave, Tennessee, an ancient Hebrew inscription was found that mentiones the Israelite tribe of Judah!


       Another fascinating archeological discovery in America is an ancient artifact bearing an old Hebrew inscription of the Ten Commandments unearthed in Ohio in 1860.  The tablet also includes a scene of an individual - Moses- carved into the front of the tablet in considerable detail, holding the tablets of the Ten Commandments.  This artifact was discovered in an ancient burial mound.

Native Language & Customs

       There are many Native American Indian customs that confirm the fact of their Hebrew origin.  Many of those customs and linguistic evidence were observed and recorded by the first Europeans who had contact with various Indian tribes. The old customs of the American Indian people included many rituals that were the same or partially differed, from the equivalent Hebrew observances of the Mosaic Law. Each Indian tribe displayed some customs or traditions that are definitely Hebrew in character




       The Passover was observed at the time of the full moon.  Indian legends, including that of the Yuchis, stated that they had migrated to the area of Florida and Georgia from the region of the Bahamas. According to their legends, the islands sank beneath the sea and they fled for their lives.  The Yuchis who migrated to the area of Oklahoma eventually settled there.  A custom that they have is unique among Amerindians and they are racially and linguistically distinct from their neighbors.  Every year on the 15th day of the sacred month of harvest in autumn they make a pilgrimage.  For eight days they live in "boots" with the roof open to the sky, covered only with branches, leaves and foliage.  During this festival they dance around a sacred fire and they call upon the name of God.  Virtually an identical custom existed among the ancient Israelites.  In the harvest season of autumn on the 15th day of the sacred month of harvest (7th month) they celebrated the "festival of booths."  This festival dates to the time of Moses and the Exodus from Egypt (Leviticus 23).


Leviticus 23


ט  וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה, אֶל-מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר.

9 And the LORD spoke unto Moses saying:

י  דַּבֵּר אֶל-בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם, כִּי-תָבֹאוּ אֶל-הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם, וּקְצַרְתֶּם אֶת-קְצִירָהּ--וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת-עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם, אֶל-הַכֹּהֵן.

10 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When ye are come into the land, which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring the sheaf of the first-fruits of your harvest unto the priest.

יא  וְהֵנִיף אֶת-הָעֹמֶר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה, לִרְצֹנְכֶם; מִמָּחֳרַת, הַשַּׁבָּת, יְנִיפֶנּוּ, הַכֹּהֵן.

11 And he shall wave the sheaf before the LORD, to be accepted for you; on the morrow after the Sabbath the priest shall wave it.

יב  וַעֲשִׂיתֶם, בְּיוֹם הֲנִיפְכֶם אֶת-הָעֹמֶר, כֶּבֶשׂ תָּמִים בֶּן-שְׁנָתוֹ לְעֹלָה, לַיהוָה.

12 And in the day when ye wave the sheaf, ye shall offer a he-lamb without blemish of the first year for a burnt offering unto the LORD.


      Dr. Cyrus Gordon of Brandeis University in Boston was able to view one of these fall harvest festivals of the Yuchi Indians.  He heard their chants, songs and other ceremonies.  An expert in Hebrew, Minoan and other Mid-Eastern languages, he was startled and exclaimed to his companion:  he was he listened and exclaimed to his companion, “My God! They are speaking the Hebrew names of God!”


       Some of the best-educated Europeans who first contacted American Indians in eastern North America noticed that, in the language of many tribes, there were numerous words that sounded the same, and had the same meaning as Hebrew words!


       Among those reaching this conclusion were notable early immagrants to North America, such as William Penn, Roger Williams and Jonathan Edwards.




  Source: Wikipedia-public domain


A Key into the language of America,  by Roger Williams

(first published in 1643 in London, England)


        “They have an exact forme of King, Priest, and Prophet, as was in Israel typicall of old in the holy land of Canaan, and as the Lord Jesus ordained in his spirituall Land of Canaan his Church throughout it the whole World: their Kings or Governours called Sachimauog Kings and Atauskowaug Rulers doe govern: Their Priests performe and manage their worship: Their wise men and old men (of which number their Priests are also,) whom they call Taupowaug they make solemn speeches and Orations, or Lectures to them, concerning Religion, Peace or Warre and all things. [1]


Awaun Nakommit.              Who makes a feast?

Peeyauntam.                         He is at Prayer

Peeyauntamwock                 They are praying

Cowwewonck                      The Soule, derived from Cowwene (to sleep)  

                                            (because they say it works and operates when the body sleeps)


Awaunkeesitteouwincoh      Who made you?

Ichunckkitonckquean            When you die?

Anan sowanakitaiiwaw         It goes to the South West


Pausuck naunt manit, keesittin keesuck & c. =” One onely God made the Heavens & c.”.


Roger Williams observed:   “They believe that the soules of men and women goe to the



        “They  labour six dayes, and rest and worship the seventh” “They relate that Kanidntoxowit made one man and woman of a stone, which disliking, he broke  them in pieces, and made another man and woman of a Tree, which were like the Fountaines (sic) of all mankind. “ 


Note [1]

 Regarding Roger Williams explanation of local indigenous religious customs

 of a now extinct New England tribe he observed and recorded in his notes in 1643.


Source: “, , Saarbrucken 2011


HEBREW LANGUAGE – North and South American Similarities


       Words that have the same sounds and meanings in Hebrew as they do in Amerindian languages include those for wife, man, heavens, prayer, winter and many verbs and phrases. 


       Among the words that were nearly identical to the Hebrew were Yo-he-wah [corresponding to Yahweh], and ha-le-lu or ha-le-lu-yah.


       Similarly in the mid-1600’s, reports of Hebrew speaking Indians in South America first came to the attention of Europeans.


       As in North America, not only did the Europeans discover many strong similarities between the spoken languages of the Indians and the Hebrew language, they also reported seeing inscriptions written in Hebrew, and a very strong similarity between Indian customs and Israelite practices.


       Israelis made it to America thousands of years before Europeans because there were sailors from the tribe of Zebulon and they went all over the world and left their mark.


       They left from the City of Eilat   it is recorded in the Old Testament that Solomon sent his navy all over to bring copper and silver and gold and tin and minerals like turquoise for the temple he was about to build.  Also the name and continent is mentioned in the Talmud.


The Language Connection


       In western Connecticut there are five sites that were visited by two college professors, after discovery by a high school teacher that were ALL dated to MINIMUALLY 1200 BC, as the Celtic inscriptions carved in STONE were WITHOUT vowels, that existed only AFTER 1200 BC.


       Structures build of massive stone slabs, and used to establish vernal equinox and summer solstice, were almost exact replicas of those made by the Celts in Spain, France and Ireland, using ‘corbeled arches’. The finds here and in NH were summed up in the book the two professors put out about 1968 called ” Americ BC “.


Source:  Harold Walker  (Blog Site)



OGAM INSCRIPTIONS – Western Connecticut


       The  writing there was Ogam,[1] and the symbol for the summer solstice, a circle with a line bisecting it, indicating ‘half day; half night’ was also seen. Some of the stones dragged over the top of their structures were estimated to be over 3 1/2 tons. Sadly, seeds from trees grew in sever openings, and the trees that developed have actually lifted some of these stones over the centuries. As they had only man power and no domesticated animals, not even rope/pulleys, it is a mystery as to how it was accomplished.

H.E. Walker


       The partial Zodiac with YaH glyph composed of a Sun-Moon eclipse and aligning of the 5 Planets in Libra as found on the Northmost point of Hidden Mtn. NM, event has been exacted using 5 astronomical programs for affirmation, to date to the year 759 B.C.E. late in the day of Teruah.


Celtic Ogam History


       The Celts were the only people to use ogam, using it as a form of secret communication, yet it was also used for divinatory purposes.Examples of Ogam can still be seen today, carved on stones scattered throughout the British Isles and the European mainland. Some of the stones are only name tags referring to great heroes in history or used to mark boundaries, but some are clearly of more mystical purpose.


       Ogam itself is a very complex language capable of many different subtle layers, some of which are lost to us, through its associations with trees different elements and colours one word could mean several things and in the hands of a true bard many political undercurrents could be construed that could crush the mightiest conquerer.


       The Celts themselves were a fiery creative people, quick tempered and renowned as fearless warriors. This stemmed from their religious beliefs which the afterlife was an integral part of. This belief also had a proficient effect on their culture and most notably their art. The Celtic mythology and art made a profound impact and influence through out Europe. Celts still survive to this day their descendants can now be found in Scotland, Ireland (which has always been the centre of their world), Wales [2] and parts of Brittany and Spain.


Source: Blog Site: Celtic Ogham History



[1] Ogam is the American spelling of Ogham


[2] Ogam normally is more prevalent in Ireland.


First Atlantic Crossings


       That a party of Gaelic-speaking Japhethites (who were of lighter complexion), and Canaanite speaking Hamites (who were dark skinned) made a joint surveying expedition to the New World soon after this is evident from the petroglyphs found beside the Arkansas River, on Turkey Mountain near Tulsa, present day Oklahoma.


       There, exactly on the 36th parallel, is found the Canaanite word Pyaa and above it, the old Celtic word Guin. Both words signified the same in both languages: "White" or "whites". In other words, this site was to serve as the boundary marker between the "white" nations of Japheth to the north, and the darker nations of Ham to the South. The word Gwyn still means white or fair in Welsh today, who call themselves Cymru as direct descendants of Gomer. The Ogam inscriptions in America also share other features of so-called P-Celtic, such as the patronymic 'Mab' (in lieu of 'Mac'.)




       Colonists from present day Palestine and Syria had settled near the mouth of the Guadalquivir in southwestern Spain, in what is now Andalusia. The trade was in metals, which the natives mined. (They were probably the ancestors of the Basques). During this time the Celts were also pushing into the regions, and had overrun
them by 500 BC. They were relatives of the former colonists,but this fact was not necessarily realised by them.


       A city was built, called Tartessos, in Greek. The script of their inscriptions, known as Tartessian, was very close to Phoenician, and Phoenician was so close to ancient Hebrew as to be almost a dialect. A great many modern names in Europe are of Phoenician origin, according to Professor Sammes. The very word "Europe" comes from "Ur-appa", meaning "a country of white complexions".


       The Bible tells us that the ships of Tarshish were the largest in the then known world, and they became synonymous with the idea of sea power. Coastal vessels were unable to cope with the sometimes-fierce conditions of the open sea. In Bronze Age times sailors feared the east wind, in case it should blow them out into the Mediterranean, so they admired those whose ships were sturdy enough to venture even further afield to the famous "Tin Islands". Besides the Biblical references to this ancient trade, there are several classical authorities that mention it.


       The merchants of Tarshish were considered to be very rich, and to have acquired their wealth by trade with the products of Andalusia, for the Andalusians mined silver. Spanish archaeologists have studied the remains of the Tartessian culture. They consider that it was dominant in southern Spain and that it kept the Celtic culture of the Iron Age from the region for a considerable time. This means that there are few traces of the La Tene culture compared with the rest of Europe.


       Tartessian inscriptions have been found in America, in New England. The most important was found at Mount Hope Bay, Bristol, Rhode Island. It depicted a Tartessian ship without sails, but with a steering oar, and the translation is believed to mean "Mariners of Tarshish this rock proclaims". It cannot be accurately dated, but is believed to be from about 700 or 600 BC.


       Another inscription, this time in Ogham script has been found at Monhegan Island (off the coast of Maine). There is a flat topped islet which could have been used for loading and unloading ships. The inscription is in the ancient Goidelic language (Celtic or Gaelic). Thus it would appear that trade was extensively carried on in the late Bronze Age to an extent that only recently is becoming realised. An inscription in Phoenician has also been found in Brazil.


       Correspondence has been found which was from King Hiram of Tyre (who supplied materials for Solomon's Temple) to a king of Lavinia, which was Tuscany. The Etruscan script is decipherable by knowledge of Phoenician, so it would appear that Etruria was another colony of these Phoenician/Israelitish adventurers.The document deals with a shipment from Tyre to Italy.


Source: “Who were the Phoenicians and Carthaginians?” Valerie Martlew








       Ida S. Proper began her history,”Monhegan, The Cradle of New England”, with an interesting survey of prehistoric voyages to North America that may have visited Monhegan Island itself and carved the “runes” on Manana Island. She wrote of the legends of the Phoenicians, Irish, Welsh and Norse visits to the Island, as well as of Captain John Smith's visit in 1614.





Who Made The Inscriptions on Manana?


       On the small island of Manana is a rocky ledge with “rune-like” carvings, “discovered" in modern times in the 1850's. For many years, these inscriptions were cited as definitive evidence of early Viking contact; however theories and conclusions have changed over the years. Geologists from the Carnegie Museum declared the "runes" to be natural erosion and phenomenon. Some archaeologists felt the carvings to be a form of Celtic Ogham, an ancient Irish script or that it is a petroglyph carved by Native Americans.


Source: The Rope Shed Blog (edited and abridged –)


       Epigrapher Barry Fell, was an emeritus professor at Harvard University and of the Early Sites Research Society, believed the inscription is in Goidelic Keltic—the Bronze Age predecessor to Irish—which has been deciphered as saying: “Ships from Phoenicia: Cargo Platform,” thus the Manana Island site being suitable for loading trade goods.



Peterborough, Ontario, Canada


A Royal Visitor


       On the basis of evidence gained from translations of Ogam script in North America, Fell (1982) proposed the following hypothesis:  "Some seventeen centuries before the time of Christ a Norsemen king named Woden-lithi sailed across the Atlantic and entered the St. Lawrence River.


       He reached the neighborhood of where Toronto now stands, and established a trading colony with a religious and commercial center at the place that is now known as Petroglyphs Park, at Peterborough.  His homeland was Norway, his capital at Ringerike, west of the head of Oslo Fjord.  He remained in Canada for five months, from April to September, trading his cargo of woven material for copper ingots obtained from the local Algonquians (whom he called Wal, a word cognate with Wales and Welsh and meaning "foreigners.")


       He left behind an inscription that records his visits, his religious beliefs, a standard of measures for cloth and cordage, and an astronomical observatory for determining the Norsemen calendar year, which began in march, and for determining the dates of the Yule and pagan Easter festivals.  having provided his colonists with these essentials, he sailed back to Scandinavia and thereafter disappears into the limbo of unwritten Bronze Age history.  The king's inscription gives his Scandinavian title only and makes no claim to the discovery of the Americas nor to conquest of territory.


PETROGLYPHS PARK Peterborough, Ontario, CANADA


       The area visible includes the central sighting point of the ain sun-god figure and part of the east-facing slope.  The more conspicuous markings have been delineated with a black wax crayon applied by personnel at the site.


       Stressed are the larger elements added later by Algonquin artists.  Most of the finer Tifinag letters are not marked by crayon.  A detailed plan may be found in Joan M. & Romas K. Vastokas, 1973, Mansard Press (Fell 1982).


       Clearly he was not the first visitor to the Americas from Europe, for he found that the Ojibwa Algonquians were already acquainted with the ancient Basque syllabary, and when Woden-lithi set sail for home, an Ojibwa scribe cut a short comment into the rock at the site, using the ancient Basque script and a form of Algonquian still comprehensible today, despite the lapse of time.


       Fell (1982) then continued with evidence supporting such sweeping claims.  He suggested, "The primary physical evidence comprises a series of inscriptions cut in the Tifinag and ogam consaine alphabets, using an early form of the Norse tongue, scattered around the outer margins of the petroglyph site at Peterborough [Ontario, Canada]


PETROGLYPH PARK – Peterborough - continued


       Except for the central sun god and moon-goddess figures and certain astronomical axes cut across the site, the numerous inscriptions are the work of later Algonquian artists, who used King Woden-lithi's inscription as a model for their own, more conspicuous, carvings.  The site has been since 1972 under official government protection the Vastoskas team found and recorded the inscriptions and reported that they must date back to a period before the historical occupation of the region by the Hurons and later by Iroquois; in other words, the inscriptions could not be modern features, and must date back to the era of Algonquian occupation, which came to an en some five centuries ago.


        Joan and Romas Vastoskas recognized apparent Scandinavian and Bronze Age features in the art style.  They pointed out that the ships depicted in the inscription are shown in the European manner, with animal figureheads and stern tailpieces, features totally unknown to Algonquian, or indeed in any American Indian, art.  They, and other archaeologists, noticed the strange similarities of the central sun-god figure. and associated motifs to corresponding solar deities of Europe, especially the Bronze Age petroglyphs of Scandinavia.  Other characteristic Scandinavian features are drawings, which record such elements of Norsemen mythology as the maiming of the god of war by the Fenrir wolf.., the conspicuous short-handled hammer, Mjolnir, of Thunor (Thor of the Norsemen), and Gungnir, the spear of Woden. Both of which were imitated many times over by the Algonquian artists who later occupied the site


       Thus, the purely objective reports made by the Vastoskases who sought only to record what they discovered, without attaching any interpretation other than that appropriate for Algonquian art, have an added value and importance for us now, for they observed the material as it was uncovered from the soil and placed it on permanent record in their photographs, charts, and descriptions.  As a result of the initial discoveries, the whole site was set aside as a public part and protected by an enclosure. 


       The actual discovery occurred on May 12, 1954, by three geologists, Ernest Craig, Charles Phipps, and Everitt Davis, in the course of fieldwork on mining claims.  The following day, "Nick" Nickels, a photographer-journalist of the Peterborough Examiner, visited the site, and so began the first modern records of it.


       Paul Sweetman of the University of Toronto undertook the first research at the site in July 1954, recording nearly a hundred petroglyphs.  Sweetman's report indicated a possible age as great as 3,500 years or as young as 400 years.  His upper limit, 3,500 years, is in agreement with the epigraphic evidence as given in this book.  Thousands of visitors now come to the site each year, using the access road and other facilities that have been erected for their benefit, it has become a major center of archaeological interest..


       The Vastokases, like most archaeologists in North America, felt obliged to explain all American petroglyphs as being the work of native Amerindian artists.  Despite their, and others' perception of the similarities to Scandinavian petroglyphs of the Bronze Age, the idea that any connection might have existed between North America and Scandinavia in the Bronze Age, some 3,500 years ago, seemed preposterous.  So they were faced with remarkable parallels, yet they elected to explain them as no more than chance similarities brought about by a shamanistic view of the sky as a kind of sea on which the sun and the moon sailed their ships to cross the heavens each day.


       In treating the inscriptions in this way, they were following the example of other distinguished anthropologists and archaeologists who had investigated North American petroglyphs.  The leading researcher during the last several decades had been Professor Robert Heizer of the University of California.who was vehement in his rejection of all theories that America had been visited in pre-Columbian times by voyagers from Europe, Africa, or elsewhere, and he chose to view all American petroglyphs as the products of Amerindians.


       He did take account of age-determination techniques, such as those dependent on carbon-dating of materials found in caves where petroglyphs occur and the evidence provided by the oxidation of rocks, especially in dry climates such as eastern California, Nevada, and Arizona. 


       These methods enabled Heizer to set dates of up to five thousand years ago for some petroglyphs.  As for me, at the time when the Ontario petroglyphs were discovered, Fell had just completed a comprehensive Scandinavian journey and had visited many of the famous inscriptions of Sweden and Denmark, though he was still a long way from recognizing the Tifinag alphabet at any Bronze Age petroglyph site beyond the shores of North Africa. 


       Fell’s subsequent work on Tifinag led to the gradual decipherment of the ancient language of Libya and, after various Libyan scholars visited me at Harvard, Fell was invited to lecture on the Tifinag inscriptions at the universities of Tripoli and Benghazi.  Just before leaving for North Africa in 1977, Fell had received from Otto Devitt the first of what were to be a continuing series of photographs he made for me of the petroglyphs at Peterborough.  Although he could see that the site included Tifinag letters, the words they formed seemed to have no discernible connection with the language of ancient Libya, and he was forced to put the slides aside while undertaking other assignments.


       In the interim Fell read some of Heizer's reports on the petroglyphs of eastern California and Nevada, and recognized that they included Tifinag and Kufi (early Arabic).  A particularly striking case is the petroglyph in Owens Valley, California, that depicts the entire zodiac, in the form it had before the third century BC, together with a Kufi inscription explaining that the New Year is determined at the time of the vernal equinox, when the sun enters the constellation of the Ram.  One of Dr. Fell’s former Harvard students, Dr. Jon Polansky, was now doing research at Berkeley, and he made the acquaintance of Professor Heizer and showed him the decipherment Fell had done on his Owens Valley petroglyphs.


       As a consequence Professor Heizer invited me to visit him; this came about in May 1979.  We became friends and, putting aside his former opposition to the notion of pre-Columbian visitors, Bob Heizer now carefully checked each element of the decipherment and confirmed that Fell had rendered his original published diagrams correctly tin the version in which In inserted the sound values of the Kufi signs.  We planned a joint publication, but illness prevented him from accompanying me into the desert that year.  Instead, he arranged for one of his former Berkeley students, Dr. Christopher Corson, to take me to some of the inscription areas.


       Dr. Corson, an archaeologist in the Bureau of Land Management, has the best knowledge of petroglyph sites in northern California and northwest Nevada.  He led a party that included John Williams, Jon Polansky, and me, together with Wayne and Betty Struble and their son Peter. Bob Heizer planned to take part in Fell’s next field trip, but to his great regret he passed away, struck down by the illness that had already prevented his participation in the 1979 fieldwork.


       Dr. Heizer's contribution to American petroglyph studies had been immense, and Fell’s colleagues and he knew that a significant point had been reached when Heizer recognized the true nature of the Owens Valley zodiac and opened his mind to a new view of American prehistory in which pre-Columbian visitors and colonists would now play a role.


       Heizer, an archeologist and anthropologist, filled an intermediate position between those archeologists who devote their research to excavation of ancient sites and epigraphers, those linguists who give their energies to the decipherment of ancient inscriptions.By 1979, the same season in which Heizer and Fell had begun to influence each other, the epigraphers of Europe had already begun to analyze by work on ancient inscriptions in America, and soon authoritative publications began to appear, giving strong support and conformation.


       Professor Pennar Davies, a leading Welsh scholar, and in America, Professor Sanford Etheridge, editor of Gaeltacht (an Irish-language publication), had both written in support of Fell’s finding ogam inscriptions in America.


       In Spain, the leading Basque scholar, Dr. Imanol Agiŕe, advised me that he too confirmed Fell’s reports on Basque inscriptions in Pennsylvania, dating from about the ninth century before Christ.  In 1980 the volume he contributed to the Gran Enciclopedia Vasca (Great Basque Encyclopedia) contained letter-by-letter analyses of Fell’s papers, and in a technical paper published in 1982 Agíre acknowledged that his decipherment of the ancient Basque syllabary was correct. These and other published papers, such as those of the Swiss linguist Professor Linus Brunner, provided competent scholarly approval of our American studies on the alphabets and syllabaries that are represented at the site in Peterborough.   


       From the information given herein it is obvious that the petroglyphs at Peterborough cannot be forgeries, and that they are ancient.  From the proof of these investigations we now believe we can eventually persuade Americans to realize that American history extends far into the past, and that America and Europe interacted through trade and cultural contact for over three thousand years before Columbus who never made landfall along the American coastlin] made his first voyage. 


          Giovanni Caboto (known in English as John Cabot; c. 1450 – c. 1499) was an Italian navigator and explorer whose 1497 discovery of parts of North America is commonly held to have been the first European voyager to travel to the continent of North America since the Norse Vikings in the eleventh century. The official position of the Canadian and United Kingdom governments is that he landed on the island of Newfoundland.


       In New England James P. Whittall and members of the Early Sites Research Society have discovered and excavated a site (a disk barrow) that was first occupied seven thousand years ago.  Some of the skeletons show the characteristics of Europeans, yet their age by carbon dating is at least 1,600 years.  One of the skulls matches closely the skulls of the ancient Irish.  These facts have been determined by an anthropologist, Professor Albert Casey, whose research has been devoted to skull and bone characteristics of Old World peoples.  His computer is programmed to recognize Old World characteristics in New World skulls not being discovered.


       The tumuli of northeastern America show great similarities to those of Europe.  The radiocarbon dates indicate similar ranges to time.  The artifacts excavated from American burial sites, sometimes in actual contact with the skeletons of their presumed former owners, have been discovered in some cases to have inscriptions carved upon them, in Ogam and Basque script; to Dr. William P. Grigsby we owe this observation, based on his own extensive collections of artifacts from the southeastern states.


       We are faced, therefore, with what amounts to conclusive evidence that the artifacts (including written inscriptions) of European peoples of the Bronze Age are found at American archaeological sites, and with these artifacts skeletons are occasionally found that conform to Europoid criteria.  The recognition and confirmation of the inscriptions are due to epigraphers who have published their findings and who, in most cases, teach courses in linguistics or epigraphy at reputable universities.


       Thus, whether or not we can comprehend the sailing techniques of Bronze Age peoples, the fact seems inescapable that Bronze Age Europeans reached North America.  Fell’s personal view was that the mild climate of the Bronze Age permitted navigation to take advantage of the westward-flowing currents and westward-blowing winds of the polar regions, and thus made the natural northern route to North America much easier to use than is the case today, when polar ice intrudes and savage weather occurs  Fell had sailed that route and appreciated its discomforts.


       They would have been much less severe in the Bronze Age, while the attraction of North America for Scandinavian skippers would have been much enhanced by the availability of copper in metallic form, at a time when Europe was demanding copper for bronze alloys on a larger scale than ever before or since.






       Salient aspects of the Bronze Age are now described by Fell.  "In northern Europe bronze weapons and implements first began to replace the stone artifacts of the Neolithic inhabitants when trade routes to the Mediterranean lands permitted imports from the south.  The change from stone and malleable copper to the more durable and more valuable bronze equipment is dated to about 2000 BC."


       At this time, which marks the opening of the Bronze Age, the most numerous and conspicuous man-made features of the landscape were the massive drystone monuments that had been erected during the last phases of the Neolithic, from about 2200 BC onward.  These great monuments, called megaliths (from Greek roots meaning huge stones) have remained an impressive feature of the European landscape ever since, and today tens of thousands of tourists visit the megalithic sites every year, to gaze with wonder at these mysterious works of our ancestors.


       When the English Pilgrims began to settle northeastern North America in the early 1600s they found that the forests and open hillsides carried similar ancient stone monuments.  Governor John Winthrop (the Younger) of Connecticut had become during his student years one of the first Fellows of the infant Royal Society, and after his arrival in America was regarded by the colonists as a fount of information on all matters to do with natural history and antiquities.  He wrote papers for the early volumes of the Philosophical Transactions (published by the Royal Society in London) and thus drew attention to the salient features of scientific interest in his new world across the Atlantic.


       Among his papers is found evidence of inquiries from settlers as to what could be the meaning of the strange stone "forts" they were encountering.  it was noted that the Algonquian Indians did not use stone in their constructions (save for some rare instances), and the Indians themselves shunned the stone chambers and could throw no light on their origins.


       Toward the close of the nineteenth century the opinions of a few influential archaeologists in North America were that no European had set foot in America until the time of Columbus.  Since such opinions precluded any possibility that the stone monuments of New England might be related to the megalithic monuments of Europe, the entire subject fell out of favor.  Americans were sent to Europe to study Stone Age and Bronze Age archaeology, and few, if any, thought to pay attention to the problems raised by the New England megaliths.


       So deeply ingrained is this view of the age long isolation of America that when in 1976 Fell published his reasoned thoughts on the parallels between American and European archaeological sites, his book America BC was dismissed by most archaeologists as ignorant rubbish.  In reality, much of Fell’s reasoning was based on a careful comparison of engraved inscriptions found on the associated stonework, both in European sites (especially Portugal and Spain) and in American contests.


       Fell recorded, for example, well-known Iberian scripts of the late Bronze Age, found on hundreds of rocks in Pennsylvania, and his decipherments, utilizing Professor David Diringer's tales in The Alphabet (Hutchinson, 1968).  Such works as Resurrección María de Azukue's Diccionario Vasco-Español-Frances (Bilbao, 1969) enabled me to recognize and report Basque gravestones and boundary marker stones, apparently dating from about the era of 900 BC.


       European epigraphers and linguists, such as the foremost Basque scholars, carried out detailed checks on Fell’s findings, confirmed most of them, and, as already noted, in the latest volume of the Gran Enciclopedia Vasca [a discussion is] now given over to matters raised by these American Basque inscriptions, and the analysis by Imanol Agiŕe in his Vinculos de la Lengua Vasca gives a virtual total confirmation of his findings:  the inscriptions, in Agíre's opinion, do date from about 900 BC, and they do carry Basque phrases in the appropriate Iberian alphabets of that period.  These findings have been the object of much discussion by archaeologists.   


       Since linguists and epigraphers concur that the American inscriptions do include genuine products of Bronze Age scribes, and that the scripts and languages used show that the scribes came from European and North African lands, there is no longer any basis for doubting that the monuments of North America that resemble megaliths are indeed just that--megaliths.  By this it should be understood monuments produced by colonists from Europe in Bronze Age times.


       Radiocarbon and amino acid dating has only recently been applied to the determination of dates of American megaliths [as of 1982 here], but analogous features suggesting early European penetration into North America include the low circular burial mounds that are called disk barrows.


       Already noted previously the investigation of one of these, presently under way in New England by James Whittall.  it has so far been learned that Whittall's site was under continuous occupation, at least for ceremonial purposes, from about 5000 BC (amino-acid date 7200 Before Present), until about 500 BC.  Over that span of time a number of burials occurred and, as noted.... these included a Europoid skeleton.


       Associated stone artifacts resemble tools of the era called Archaic in America (8000 to 500 BC), corresponding to the entire span of the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Europe.  Sometime before, AD 900,m stonework structure was added around the margins of the barrow.  These findings by Whittall point strongly to European arrivals in North America long before Bronze Age times.


       Other radiocarbon dates show that some of the megalithic chambers in New England are of later date, one in Vermont, for example, yielding charcoal from the foundation layer that gave a carbon date of about AD 200.


       As for those megalithic monuments that contain no artifacts or charcoal, dates can only be guessed at from indirect evidence.  The guesses made in that way suggest that most of them were probably built during Bronze Age and Iron Age times, as indeed many of the European megaliths can be shown to postdate the Neolithic period also.  So massive and enduring are megaliths that, whenever they were built, the affected the living space of later peoples, and certainly Bronze Age Europeans utilized the Neolithic megaliths.


       ”Further comments will be restricted to the actual megalithic monuments, merely noting here that the disk barrow, with its contained female skeletons lying in flexed positions, is regarded in Europe as a feature of the early Bronze Age and that therefore it is relevant to note here that similar features occur in New England in districts where megalithic monuments occur.  Fell’s own opinion, of course, remained unaltered; it is that the megalithic monuments of northeastern North America were used during the Bronze Age and therefore may have been constructed either shortly before or during the Bronze Age.


       The term dolmen is a Breton word meaning a stone table.  it aptly describes many of the smaller examples of the megalithic monuments that go under this name..They comprise an upper, horizontal slab of stone, the capstone, which is supported on several vertical slabs, like a table, with an internal cavity.  European archaeologists believe that the central cavity originally contained a burial and that the entire structure was originally buried in earth that has subsequently disappeared through erosion. it is known that some examples had partial earth cover still intact a century or so ago.


       Such bared burial chambers are often distinguished from other dolmens under the name cromlech.






Photo William J. Hall Cromlech dolmen, Gay Head, Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts


Note: [1]

An example at Gay Head, on the island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts; a faintly visible Ogam inscription occurs on one of the stones at the entrance to the small chamber within...


       Others, are all located at Westport, Massachusetts [2] Similar ones occur in the Boston area.  Nothing is known of any former burial relics in these small cromlechs. Very much large examples, with massive capstones and relatively shorter vertical supports, form conspicuous dolmens.  These seem unlikely to have been covered by earth at any stage.


       A collapsed dolmen was found in Vermont.  The finder, John Williams, also found a remarkable sculpted ax and halberd that are cut into one end of the squared capstone.


       An inscribed halberd and, crossed with it, what seems to be a palm leaf, engraved on the capstone of the dolmen found in central Vermont (see Fell 1982).  Similar inscribed details occur on an early Bronze Age dolmen at Nether Largie, North Scotland.  Ax heads are engraved on one end of the capstone and a halberd with streamers on another upright stone of the same burial cist.  it is difficult to conceive of any Amerindian carving such devices and, as stated, the Algonquians of the New England region have no knowledge of the authors of these stone monuments. 


       Still more striking evidence is seen in examples from France. Dated Roman coins have been found under dolmens in France, and other evidence proves that they served as sites for some kind of ceremony even as late as the Middle Ages, when the church authorities regarded such assemblies s the practice of witchcraft.  By analogy, then, there are no grounds for insisting that dolmens are restricted to the archaeology of the Neolithic period, as do some British authorities.


       The largest of the dolmens utilize natural boulders, sometimes weighing up to 90 tons, supported precariously, so it would seem, on the underlying peg stones, yet their duration through 4,000 years shows their builders to have had a fine sense of stable construction.


       At Lynn, Massachusetts a local Dolmen is described as ‘The Cannon Stone.”  Another was discovered by David Harvey, near Lake Lujenda, northern Minnesota, and the first to be reported from that state. Others have been discovered at   Bartlett, New Hampshire, and North Salem, New York.


       It difficult to distinguish the North American examples from the European ones and believe that ancient builders who shared a common culture produced both sets.  When the evidence of inscriptions is taken into account, the relationship of the American examples to those of northern Europe becomes undeniable.


       A second category of megaliths is supplied by the underground stone chambers, and on some of these, too, the American ones included, inscriptions are found that use European scripts appropriate to the Bronze Age, as well as later graffiti, which have no bearing on the date of construction.  They fall in several categories, according to the mode of construction.  Some are in the form of rectangular chambers, up to twenty feet in length by ten feet in width, often with the long axis pointed toward the sunrise direction for either the equinoxes or for one of the solstices. 


       One at Danbury, Connecticut, carries engraved on a fallen lintel stone the ancient symbol of the equinox, a circle divided into equal halves, one half deeply engraved to represent night, the other left clearly visible; this chamber, as John Williams and his colleagues proved, faces the sunrise on the equinox days: that is, it is oriented due east and points to a notch on the horizon within which the sun appears on the days of the vernal and autumnal equinox. 


       The entrances commonly have a massive lintel stone supported on either two vertical slabs (called orthostats), as [one found at Mystery Hill, North Salem, New Hampshire] or on a drystone vertical column of slabs on either side


       Mystery Hill at North Salem in Hampshire has a slab lintel supported by drystone columns. Alternatively, the construction may utilize natural features of the environment, as at Concord, Massachusetts), and at Gungywamp, near Groton, Connecticut.  The chamber may be wholly subterranean, as in one of the White River examples in Vermont, or may stand free, as at Mystery Hill..


       In the latter case the details of the wall construction are visible externally and internally as drystone. The internal chamber is usually rectangular Some chambers are covered by mounds, as in South Woodstock.  Where large capstones are not available locally, corbelling is utilized to produce a roofing, as in a chamber at Upton, Massachusetts Chambers of the latter type seem to be related to the similar constructions called fougou in Cornwall, England, believed to date from the Iron Age and to have been used in and after Roman times.


       The function of a fougou is unknown, but food storage or places of refuge are considered possibilities.  The New England tradition is that the colonists as "root cellars," for storing vegetables, built these chambers.  But inquiries disclose that they were already present on some sites at the time of the arrival of the colonists, who, in any case, found that root vegetables survive the winter frost well when buried in straw in the soil, but tend to decay from mold if placed in the so called root cellars.  The enormous labor of construction, as opposed to the simplicity of building a log cabin, denies another legend, that the colonists built the chambers to live in while they were constructing their first farmhouses.  Chambers are also found on mountainsides where no farm has ever existed but where a good astronomical viewpoint is obtained.


Revelations of the Excavations


       Fell, continued his professional work as an oceanographer on remote oceanic islands, he learned of the existence of unexplained inscriptions cut in caves or painted in rock shelters.  These raised questions as to who had made the inscriptions and when they had been made.


       Fell’s first paper on Polynesian rock art has appeared under the aegis of the Royal Anthropological Institute in 1941.  His colleagues began to look out for inscriptions, too, when they know of his interest, and he gradually assembled a considerable collection of photographs and casts as the years went by.  He soon became convinced that Stone Age humans were by no means ignorant, land-tied savages.  On the contrary, he appeared to him to have been a resourceful and accomplished mariner, who could cross ocean gaps between Pacific islands greater than the total span of the Atlantic Ocean.


       As oceanography advanced, methods were developed of sending various ingenious devices down to the ocean floor to take samples by boring into the mud soils on the bottom.  Since mud accumulates extremely slowly far away from the effluence of rivers, even just an inch deep in the ocean floor takes us back to a time of deposition of the mud that amounts to thousands of years.


       Bones and shells of marine animals fall to the bottom, they are preserved there in the mud and become fossils. This fact led to Fell’s becoming involved in paleontology, the study of fossils, and before long Fell was serving as consultant to various geological institutions.  One of the skills that Fell had to acquire was knowledge of anatomy, so that fragmented bones could be reassembled and identified.  Some of the restored bones that he produced in this way became the object of research by specialists, and various museums sought his aid in these matters.


       Consequently when Fell learned by chance of the existence of hundreds of fragmented human bones taken from archaeological digs that had yielded artifacts on which he could see delicate inscriptions written in the Iberian alphabets of about 1000 BC, he naturally became very interested and inquired whether the bones might be made available to me for study. 


       They would be the first human remains we had yet encountered that were directly linked with gravesites from which readable inscriptions in an ancient European language were also recovered.  Through the good offices of Dr. William P. Grigsby of the Tennessee Archaeological Society, he eventually found himself sorting, washing, and restoring the skulls of the former owners of the inscribed artifacts.


       The first Americans, by which is meant people born and bred in the New World, certainly descended from migrants who entered North America by the only land route that links the Americas to the Old World, the now nonexistent land bridge of the Bering Strait.  Whether the first humans, pithecanthropoids of the species Homo erectus, ever reached the New World is unknown [Dr. R. D. Simpson, Callico Dig, CA. expressed a belief to Dr. Fred Legner in 1998 that Homo erectus might certainly have reached Southern California] Their fossils span areas in Africa and Eurasia that are or were tropical and subtropical (as during interglacial phases in Europe). [Simpson died with no recognition from the academic community, even tho' Leaky had endorsed her.   Sadly, she was also embittered by the opening up of Wilderness lands to logging by the US Forest Service.].


       Since it is doubtful whether a suitably warm climate could have occurred in the latitude of the Bering Strait, especially at times when the sea level was low enough to enable a land bridge to develop, it is possible that the reason why no Pithecanthropoids have been found in the Americas is because none ever reached here


       By the time humans had evolved to the stage represented by the Neanderthals of Europe, and the Old World generally, periods of low sea level were still occurring, and it seems evident that the bridge to America was crossed by humans on one (or many) of those occasions.


       Fossil humans at the Neanderthal stage are now known from Brazil, and George Carter's latest (1980) estimate suggests that a conservative date for the entry of humans into America might be about 100,000 years ago.  How long people like Neanderthals may have survived in the New World is not known, but their cousins in the Old World were contemporaries of modern types of man, at least until about 40,000 BC.


       As to what kinds of humans came nest to America, opinions of the various anthropologists who have commented in recent years seem all to be much the same: that is likely that pygmies were early entrants, since they once formed an important part of the southern Mongolian population, still linger on in isolated parts of Malaysia and neighboring territories, and are known by carbon-dating to range back in time to at least 40,000 BC.


       Before these latter facts were known, writers such as Harold Gladwin, E. A. Hooton and Carelton Coon suggested that there are traces of former pygmy populations in America, mainly in the shape of isolated communities of undersized people on the offshore islands.


       "Others, such as the zoologist W. D. Funkhouser, and the physicist W. S. Webb, of the University of Kentucky, drew attention to the extraordinary diversity of skull form in the prehistoric burials of Kentucky, and proposed that several distinct races are represented.  Bennett H. Young (1910) had encountered a living tradition among Kentucky folk that pygmies had once lived in some of the valleys of tributaries of the Mississippi in that state.  But when he tried to track the stories to their source he concluded that they must have been based on a misinterpretation of the cist burials.  The latter, are small stone-slab burial containers, some three feet in length, into which the disarticulated bones of the dead were placed.  The examples he saw did not disclose pygmy skeletons.


       Fell’s interest in this problem was aroused in 1980.  Fell was engaged on reconstructing the thousands of fragments of crania from sites in east Tennessee, sent to me by Dr. William P. Grigsby and his colleagues.  Among the best of the materials they sent me from 600 burials were several fragmented but almost complete crania, with jaws, in which the brain capacity was that of a seven-year-old child (950 cubic cm), yet the teeth showed from their complete development and severe wear that the skulls were from middle-aged individuals.  Later Fell received from Dr. Grigsby some complete skulls among which was one unbroken pygmy skull, with the jaws still attached to the facial bones.


       Two primary sources of evidence are available as to the racial affinities of the peoples who inhabited eastern North America at the epoch when the megalithic sites were in occupation.  The first and major source of evidence comprises skeletons and skulls excavated from burials where the bones are found in association with artifacts that bear readable inscriptions. 


       The east Tennessee skull was of a type that occupied the region in early Woodland times and that is associated, at the neighboring site of Snapp's Bridge, with inscribed artifacts bearing Ancient Irish and Basque words and phrases appropriate to the first millennium BC.  Similar remains from a mound near Boston have been amino-acid dated to ca. 5000 BC, these apparently representing the earliest European Atlantic crossings (Fell 1982)


       The Holliston Mills, Tennessee, Europoid skull was excavated by the Tennessee Archaeological Society (Fell 1982).   Fell obtained permission to sacrifice some of the long bones of the limbs for radiocarbon dating.  The result of a carbon-14 determination, with C-13 correction, made by Geochron Laboratories, Cambridge, on carbon dioxide recovered from the bone collagen yielded an age of 2,160 years plus or minus 135 years:  that is, they dated from about the third century BC.


       The majority of the other skeletons conformed to the most common type of Amerindian anatomy, in which the head is of the rounded (brachycephalic) type, and the jaws project slightly (mesognathous), the lips therefore being full, as in many Western tribes today.   This is a typical Mongolian condition, and there could be little doubt that the population was derived from ancient forebears who had entered the Americas from Asia.  Some of the skulls, however, were of a Europoid type, and reference by Dr. Grigsby to his very large collections (some 32,000) of stone and bone and pottery artifacts from the sites had already disclosed to him that inscriptions in old European scripts were engraved on some of the objects.


       It looked, therefore, as if a mixed population of several races had lived in the east Tennessee area, and in all probability they would have interbred.  No pygmies are known to have survived to modern times in North America, at least not in the United States or Canada, but it does seem likely that pygmies may have been among the native peoples encountered by the first European explorers to come to eastern North America."


        [The devastating effects of diseases such as measles and smallpox on Amerindians after 1492 AD and repeated European invasions, are known to have reduced population numbers by over 85% in many parts of America]. [The results are a switch in the population genotypes and phenotypes]


       Before Fell received the skeletal material he had already become interested in the problem of whether or not pygmies might have inhabited North America.  The ancient European word for pygmy or dwarf is a root based on the form nan.  Thus in ancient Greek it is nanos, in Basque it is nanu or nano (according to dialect), in Irish Gaelic it is nan, and modern French has nain, Spanish enano.  This strange unanimity among the various languages of Europe, not all of them closely related, seemed to suggest that there might once have been a race of pygmies known to ancient Europeans.


       The lack of pygmy bones in European archaeological sites seemed to imply that the inferred pygmies, if they existed at all, may not have been European pygmies.  Yet it seemed inconceivable that ancient Europeans could have known about the pygmies of central Africa, of those of the remote highlands of Malaysia and the Philippines.


       In two papers Fell wrote on the language of the Takhelne tribe of British Columbia, was that these American Indians also had a tradition of pygmies (or dwarves), whom they called the Et-nane.  Later Fell learned from a colleague that the Shoshone vocabulary also includes a similar word, whose root is nana- and is defined by the compiler of the Shoshone Dictionary as "elf-like people.” 


       When Fell began to analyze the anatomical characteristics of the pygmy skulls from Tennessee, he soon discovered that they matched those of the pygmies of the Philippines, who are also brachycephalic.  Further, he learned from the accounts of explorers in Malaysia who had penetrated to areas where no racial intermixture had occurred that the pure or true-bred pygmy there has very prognathous jaws, as is the case with the American skulls.


       These Malaysian and Philippine pygmies are regarded by archaeologists as remnants of a formerly extensive Mongoloid pygmy race that once occupied much of southern East Asia.


       Significantly, perhaps, the best-known native name of the Oriental pygmies is the Aëta.  Perhaps this root is the origin of the prefix Et- used by the Takhelne.  Whether that be so or not, it is clear that the pygmies of Tennessee were of Oriental--that is to say, East Asian--origin; and since pygmies are not maritime people, they can have reached the Americas only by the land route.  They must once have been more widely dispersed than our present finds imply.  However, they extended as far east as eastern Tennessee, and their bones have been found in association with Europoids and inscribed artifacts of Europoid type, such as loom weights and pottery stamps, lettered in ancient Irish (noted as Celtic) and Basque


Quote    Reply   

eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#27 [url]

Mar 25 13 11:03 AM

continued....there is much  more here the i can post, but notice how the pictures to do with king woden are missing or removed?


Discovered in America and in Canada

Iberian and Ogam Script in TENNESSEE


       At the early Woodland site investigated by the Archaeological Society of Tennessee at Snapp's Bridge, Tennessee, artifacts engraved in Iberian and Ogam script were discovered, including a pottery stamp of the kind used to produce the incised patterns (Fell 1982).[XI]




Fig. XI





Fig. XII   - A


Traveler’s warning written in Old Irish Ogam, from Inyo County, CA,

Site INY-430 of Heltzer & Bassenhoff (1942).  The warning states:


“The men [here] are savages, small and ill nourished, but hostile.”


       Fell concluded that there were in fact meetings of the two races, and that therefore the European visitors could well have taken back to Europe some account of these mysterious undersized people.  An inscription that Professors Heizer and Martin Baumhoff had recorded from California (see [XII] above)   when deciphered as Ancient Irish Ogam, seemed also to suggest that early explorers had encountered some pygmy race that they considered dangerous.




       In addition to skeletal remains, a number of sculptures, evidently of ancient origin, have been discovered at varying depths in the soil, some of them depicting people of obvious Europoid origin, yet all the evidence indicates that these sculptures were created in America, at an era long before the colonists arrived in modern times. 





Photo Malcolm Pearson) (Fell 1982).Head discovered at Searsmont,

Maine in an archaic environment [XIII}


       Sculptures have been found by chance in the region where megalithic chambers and dolmens occur in America.  This head [XIII} was discovered at Searsmont, Maine, executed in bedrock.  It is on display at the Sturbridge Museum, Massachusetts.  It seems to depict someone of Scandinavian or Irish descent, as the artistic style (curving nostrils, staring eyes, chaplet of bog oak with acorn) all attest. 


       Some representative illustrations may serve to show their nature and their similarity to ancient European sculpture that has been attributed to the Gauls.  Most striking is the head of a man, carved in Ancient Irish style, with the curving nostrils and staring eyes that one encounters in Irish art and wearing as a chaplet a twig of bog oak leaves and acorns.  it seems difficult to regard this as representing anything other than an Irish priest, or druid.  It was found in Searsmont, Maine, a part of a larger work of which the torso still remains on the site, the head being now in the museum at Sturbridge, Massachusetts.


       Fell believed that these heads and others like them are truly ancient American artifacts, and that the hands that carved them are also responsible for the engraved inscriptions in Ogam and other ancient European alphabets, found on artifacts at burial sites and also cut in rock.


Source:  Personal Communication to Emeritus Professor E.F.Legner, University of California


The Tifinag Alphabet - Peterborough, Ontario, Canada


       The alphabet used by scribes at Peterborough, Ontario was detailed by Fell (1982) as follows:




Table I


       "Using Table I, the comparisons of the Tifinag alphabet with the short inscriptions found in Sweden and Denmark, and supplementing these by the much more extensive material now recognized in America, it is not difficult to reconstitute King Woden-lithi's own alphabet [at Peterborough].  It is given in Table 2."




WODEN lithi


       It is now possible for anyone who cares to do so to visit the site at Peterborough, Ontario, with [the present information]... in hand, and perhaps a copy of Geir T. Zoega's Dictionary of Old Icelandic (Oxford University Press, 1910) as an independent check, and to see and read the inscriptions the king had cut, and thus for the first time ever hear the words of a Bronze Age language that stands in the direct line of descent of English and the other Norse tongues.


       Although nearly 4,000 years stand between King Woden-lithi, and modern civilizations we can still recognize much of his language as a kind of ancient English.  It is an eerie feeling to realize that we are reading, and hence hearing, the voice of the ancient explorers of Canada whose thoughts now come to us across the space of forty centuries, yet still with familiar words and expressions that remain a part of the Teutonic heritage.


       This is not the place to instruct readers in the grammar of Old Norse, let alone the still more obscure grammar of Bronze Age Norse, but it is quite within the realm of practical life for visitors, including teachers and their students, to examine for themselves at least the more conspicuous and best preserved of Woden-lithi's recorded comments.


       The diagrams will make this task relatively easy.  And for those who wish to make independent checks, or to translate parts of the text that are not included [here] , there can be no better guides than Zoega's Dictionary, a grammar of Old Norse such as E.V. Gordon's (Oxford University Press, 1927), and a camera to record the inscriptions for more detailed study at home.  For many of the words and Anglo-Saxon dictionary will also aid recognition.


WODEN-lithi’s text - continued


       The easiest parts of Woden-lithi's text are, of course, those where the letters are engraved on the largest scale, and that therefore have suffered least from the erosion of time and the elements.  One of the clearest sections is located about 30 feet to the west of the central sun figure.  The individual letters are from 20 to 40 cm high, and they form a horizontal band about 5 feet (1.5 m) long. 





The God of War Tziw (Anglo-Saxon lore)[1a]


       Tsiw (Tiw of Anglo-Saxon lore), depicted as the major god of the Aesir, protector of ships, god of war, protector of the sky gods, for whose sake he sacrificed his left hand to the giant wolf, Wenri (left).  His title here is given as Tsiw lymth = "Tsiw Maimed."  The inscribed dedication by Woden-lithi occurs beneath this figure, and is given separately in the next image (Fell 1982)


       The inscription lies directly beneath the Fig. of the god of war, Tziw, and it is in fact a dedication to this god.  The god can be recognized from [Ia] and [1b]





King Woden-lithi's dedication inscribed just below

the image of the war god Tsiw. [Ib}


       The text reads from left to right and, by supplying the vowels, may be pronounced as Wlk halgen Tsiwa Woden-litya, "The image hallowed to Tsiw by Woden-lithi."  The last two letters of the king's name are given as ogam in a ship rebus.  This is also a common feature of inscriptions at Bronze Age sites in Sweden, where prayers for the safety of ships are rendered in ogam letters that are fitted together to make diagrammatic pictures of ships.  There are also connections here with words of modern English (Fell 1982) and [1a] by the fact that he stands beside the Fenrir wolf, which has just bitten off his left hand..


       For the present we will restrict ourselves to the line of dedication, shown in..[1b] With the exception of the ornamental capital TZ  [or TS] that begins the name of the god, all the letters are easily recognizable from the table of Woden-lithi's alphabet..  Table 2 Remember that vowels are nearly always omitted in all Bronze Age inscriptions except when they occur at the beginning of a word, or where possible confusion of meaning might result.  The line of text of the dedication reads:


w-k   h-l-gn   tz-w   w-d-n-l-t-ya


       The last two letters are written in Ogam and form a rebus of a ship, on the right, all the others are in Bronze Age Tifinag.  The meaning of the text is "Image dedicated sacred to Tziw by Woden-lithi."  The individual words are as follows.


       W-K, matching Old English (Anglo-Saxon) wig, a heathen idol, in this case a bas-relief ground into limestone, depicting the god.  Probably we have to supply the same vowel, i, to make the letters w and k pronounceable, g and k are related consonants, both formed in the throat; the only difference is that g requires the vocal cords to reverberate (as can be felt by placing the fingers on the throat when uttering the sound of g), while in pronouncing k the vocal cords remain inactive, so no vibration is felt on the throat.


       Jakob Grimm, the great German philologist, first showed how pairs of consonants, such as g and k d and t, b and p, change (mutate) from voiced to unvoiced if they occur in certain positions in words.  Woden-lithi apparently spoke with an incipient "German" accent, and preferred to use a k at the end of words where we in English are usually content to retain the ancient g sound.


       The next word, rendered by Woden-lithi's scribe as H-L-GN means hallowed or, as we would prefer to say in Modern English, dedicated.  It is a root that is common to all the Teutonic languages.  Germans, for example, retain it to this very day as heilig, meaning holy, which in turn is another Modern English word derived from H-L-GN.  In the Scandinavian languages the word survives unchanged, as helgen, meaning holy or to make holy, and the Anglo-Saxon form of the word is represented by such old terms as halig (holy), halgan (a saint), halgung (a consecration or dedication), with hallow, hallowing, Halloween (All-Saints' Eve) as surviving English derivatives.


       Halloween is the night before the first day of the ancient Norseman winter (November 1), when ghosts are reputed to roam at large.  These spirits could be bought off, by bribes, from any evil intention during the following year, hence our modern surviving custom of given token gifts to children dressed as demons and ghosts.  The children of Woden-lithi's Ontario settlers no doubt carried on the same custom.The  next word is the name of the god himself, here rendered as TZ-W.  This implies a pronunciation similar to the ancient German name of the god of war, Tziwaz.  Our Anglo-Saxon forebears called him Tiw, and in the Middle Ages the surviving form of the name, in the word Tuesday, became what we still say today, for the god of war is still commemorated by having the second day after the sun god's day named for him.


       The last word is the name of King Woden-lithi himself, and it is written beside a pictograph of a man wearing a robe and crown, to show the reader that the word is the personal name of a king.  Elsewhere in the various texts on the site we find the word king spelled out in Tifinag, and it then has the form konungn, matching Anglo-Saxon cyning, Old Norse konungr and other similar forms in all the Teutonic languages.  Lithi, here rendered as litya, means "servant," thus the king's name is "Servant of Woden." Woden was the king of the Aesir or sky gods.


       "The dedication to Tziw illustrates the way in which we can use dictionaries of Anglo-Saxon or Old Norse, as well as modern English dictionaries that give the old roots

(such as the OED or the American Heritage), not only as a guide to understanding what Woden-lithi is saying, but also as a means of guessing approximately what his language-- our ancestors' language-- actually must have sounded like.


       It is not needful here to continue treating in detail the rest of the numerous texts that lie about the site at Peterborough and at other places such as the sites along the Milk River, Alberta, or in Coral Gardens, Wyoming.  Readers can devise their own philological checks, if these interest them, or ignore the subject if they are more interested in other aspects.  ......" [This discussion is merely to show how to approach the ancient inscriptions].


[Please refer now to Figs. 1b, 1c  66= 1d,  Id,  Ie, If, Ig, Ih ].




Fig. Ic


       Now that we have seen that the alphabet really does give us the means of reading the various texts that King Woden-lithi had engraved at the Peterborough site, when he selected it for the sacred center of his colony, following are some comments on the origin of this alphabet.


       It is essentially the same alphabet as that used by the Tuareg Berbers.  A possible reason for this surprising circumstance is suggested [later]."  However, none of the scholars who have worked on Tifinag inscriptions in North Africa could ever understand the relationship between the Tifinag alphabet and the Berber language.  It has now become clear that there is no relationship.  Tifinag is not a Berber invention-- instead it is Norse-- and that changes the whole problem.




Fig. Id


       The king gives us the name of his ship after identifying himself.  The symbols for "spear" and "ship" are determinatives, telling us the category of objects to which each of the alphabetic names applies.  Thus GN-GN-N-R (Old Norse gungnir) is a spear, in this case the famous magic spear of the sky god Woden. The name is subsequently applied to a ship, shown hieroglyphically by a pictograph of a ship.  The inscription is read from bottom to top, each line reading from left to right, as follows:


1.  Skip niman (A ship he took)

2.  A-Gungnir war nefn (In-honor-of-Gungnir was its name).


          Thus, the Norwegian vessel Gungnir is the earliest ship known by name to have reached the Americas.  This ship sailed the St. Lawrence River, and was commanded

by Woden-lithi, High King of Ringerike, the ancient capital of Norway.


          The section of Woden-lithi's text shown above is located about 18 feet southwest of the main sun-god figure at Peterborough, Ontario (Fell 1982).




Fig. 1e


       The king now reveals the purpose of his visit to Canada.  Two hieroglyphic symbols appear in this section.  The copper ingot symbol is universal in Bronze Age inscriptions, and originated in Mesopotamia, where ingots were cast in the shape indicated by the sign.  Numerous examples of the sign are also known from American inscriptions and Amerindian token money.


       The other hieroglyph, a comb, is peculiarly Norse.  A comb in Norse was "kam," and kam also is the past tense of the verb to come, komu.  Therefore, an ideogram of a comb yields the sound of the verb "came."  The text reads:


       For ingot-copper of excellent quality (Old Norse maetr)came (Old Norse kam) the king (Old Norse drottinnin) by way of trial (Old Norse reyna).


       This section of the text lies to the left of the preceding section, which is about 18 ft southwest of the main sun-god figure.  In contemporary language the king might have said that his voyage was a test run for market research (Fell 1982).






       The king, Woden-lithi, now tells us how long he stayed in America.  The next part of the text specifies the actual months. Two hieroglyphs occur in this section, one the five fingers, is merely the numeral 5.  The other, an arm and hand, represents the word mund (Old Norse, a hand), which in turn is an isophone (punning word sounding the same as another word) for manad (Old Norse, month).  In this section the word for "king" (Old Norse konungr) that was given hieroglyphically at the very start of the inscription, is here spelled out in Tifnag letters.  The text here reads in a clockwise direction from 1 to 5:


        (R-N Old Norse eyna) As a trial the king (N-N-GN-O-R) lay at anchor (L-GN, Old Norse lagna) for five (Old Norse fim) months (M-N-D). This section of the inscription occurs just underneath   (Fell 1982).


       The decipherment of any ancient and unknown inscription requires first that the alphabet in which it is written must be solved.  Various methods can be used to achieve this first essential.  In the case of Woden-lithi's inscription Fell found the solution relatively easy, for he had previously traveled widely in the Scandinavian countries, where shorter but similar inscriptions occur on Bronze Age monuments, and he had also carried out research on the ancient scripts of North Africa, including the Tifinag of the Tuaregs.  The Tuaregs had preserved their unique system of writing since time immemorial, and its origin was unknown, though all epigraphers, including me, supposed it to have been their own invention.


       Four thousand years ago the ancestors of the present-day peoples who speak Teutonic languages were all grouped together in Scandinavia, in parts of Germany, and along the Baltic coasts.  They had not yet differentiated into Germans, English, Scandinavians, so we can refer to them only as Norsemen.  Their descendants today not only live in northern Europe but have spread across the world, and most people in North America now speak a tongue directly descended from the Ancient Norse of the Bronze Age.




Fig. I.g


        The text until now was descending vertically down the rock face.  After taking the clockwise move in the previous section, it now ascends the rock face immediately to the left of the preceding sections.


       Here the king specifies the actual months he was present in Canada, by naming the signs of the zodiac occupied by the sun.  he came when the sun was in Gemini (in 1700 BC, this would be April-May, for the vernal equinox lay between Taurus and Aries).  He departed for his home in Norway when the sun was in Scorpio, meaning August-September, for the intervening sign of Libra was not inserted into the zodiac until about 300 BC The sign for Scorpio is partly eroded here, but reference to the complete zodiac, as given in Woden-lithi's astronomical text, shows what form he gave it.


       The significance of this section is to specify the months mentioned in the previous section.  It reads: “From April-May until August-September.”


       The text now ascends the rock face, and the king relates how he spent those five months "dealing profitably with the foreigners, exchanging his trade goods for copper ingots. “The "foreigners" were the resident Algonquians, whose friendly welcome Woden-lithi recorded earlier.


       Two hieroglyphs appear in this section, and both are still used by the Algonquians:  a square sign denotes trade goods, and a meandering sign means "expedition."  However, Woden-lithi contrived to spell out the word, while still forming a rebus-winding trail from its components.  Fell (1982) decided that the text reads:


       Hagna (Profitably) del (he dealt) [trade goods] wal (with the foreigners) kopar (for copper) erandi (the object of the expedition.  The modern English word "errand" is a cognate with erandi.


       Although short inscriptions in the Ancient Norse alphabet have recently been recognized in Scandinavia, that discovery stemmed from the more significant one of Ancient Norse engraved on North American rock.  Thus North America has now become custodian of the oldest and most precious of the ancient records of the Norsemen, and to Canada is assigned the responsibility of preserving them intact, and the thanks of millions of people must go to the geologists, surveyors, and archaeologists who uncovered the main site and placed it under the protection of the local government.


       Our ancestors of the Norsemen Bronze Age inherited some of the signs of their alphabet from their Neolithic predecessors, who also spoke a Norse tongue and used a number of signs.  Thus the following signs were already known in northern Europe before the Bronze Age.


       As is quite obvious, these are hieroglyphs in which the signs depict recognizable objects, and the sound they stand for is that of the first letter in the name of the object.  Thus, the crescent that is m is obviously the first letter of mán, the older form of our modern English moon.  Similarly the circular sign r, or hr, is the first letter of the word hringr, meaning our modern word ring.  So also the circle with a dot in the center, s, is the first letter of sol and of sunu, the two Ancient Norse names of the sun.  The b symbol is clearly the Old Norse buklr, the circular shield with a leather arm-strap, which is still called a buckler in modern English.


       These four signs, with the indicated sound values, were needed by the Neolithic wizards to indicate certain words that mean magic (bur- in Proto-Norse), sailing ship (also bur-, though a different root), and the combinations of these two words with signs for the sun and moon, both of which were viewed as celestial gods that sailed their sun ship and moon ship by magic across the heavens.  Simple statements of this kind can now be read, by sound as well as by pictograph, in the Neolithic engravings on rock in Scandinavia and also in North America, as far west as California.


       The German philologist Jakob Grimm traveled among the village communities of Germany and the Baltic lands 150 years ago, and discovered old words such as those have been mentioned.  He used his findings to develop a forecast of modern theories on how language evolves through time.  He also recorded the old names of the constellations.  This is fortunate for us, for when we look at the deciphered Norse alphabet of the Bronze Age we can now recognize more of the origins of the alphabet.  For just as the letter s and m reflect the form of the sun and the crescent moon, so also we now perceive that the dots that make up other letters, in a kind of Braille system, are really the constellations.


       Thus, just as the ancient Irish (noted as Celts) gazed at their fingers and invented a writing system called ogam based on the varying combinations of five strokes above, below, and across a central writing axis, so also the ancient Norsemen gazed instead at the sky and saw their letters writ large upon the face of heaven.  No doubt they said their script was divine, sent from the sky by the sky god Woden (Odin), lord of magic and of runes, the secret writing of the magicians.


       As this word runes has already been applied to later types of writing developed by the Norsemen after the Iron Age, we cannot use it without some qualification for our Bronze Age alphabet, to which it undoubtedly was originally applied.  So we have to compromise and call the oldest writing of the Norsemen peoples, Bronze Age Runes.


       There remain a number of other letters that seem to be formed from more commonplace objects of everyday life in ancient times.  In Fell’s popular books on North American inscriptions he was faced with the difficulty of trying to explain to an English-speaking public the meaning and language of texts engraved in tongues so remotely different from English that it made the tasks both of writing the books and of reading them (as many correspondents have told me) decidedly difficult.


       Now, thanks to King Woden-lithi, these problems all vanish.  He spoke and wrote a language that resounds down the centuries with the age-old familiar tones of all the Norse tongues.  We speakers of English, as well as our cousins in Europe who speak related languages, can all recognize many of the words that Woden-lithi and his Ontario colonists spoke and wrote here seventeen centuries before Julius Caesar first encountered the Norsemen tribes of the Rhineland.


Little Crow Island, Deer Isle, Maine


       Although Woden-lithi's site at Peterborough is the first recognizable Norsemen Bronze Age site to be discovered in America, it now appears that there were other visitors from the Norsemen world of that era.  For some years a puzzling inscription has been known from little Crow Island, near Deer Isle, Maine, but it could not be deciphered, nor was the script recognized.




        It is shown in an inscription at Crow Island, Penobscot Bay, near Deer Isle, Maine, bears a Nordic Tifnag script whose meaning Fell (1982) proposed might be: 


                     Ey vik hvi nokkvi leya a vika.  Hako lod kugga her

                   "A sheltered island, where ships may lie in a harbor.

                                   Haakon brought his cog here." 


       A provisional reading is given, which suggests that some voyager from Scandinavia, seemingly named Hako or Haakon, visited Maine at a time when the Bronze Age runes were still in use.  [= Ey vik hvi nokkvi leya a vika = "A sheltered island, where ships may lie in a harbor.  Haakon brought his cog here."] This inscription greatly resembles the script called bead ogam, but the resultant text, if it were read as bead ogam, is gibberish, whereas if we treat it as Tifinag script, a Norse text, although rather obscure, emerges.  The lack of associated pictographs or hieroglyphs increases the difficulty of reading the signs.


Servant of Woden's Observatory


       To the discerning eye the solar observatory that King Woden-lithi established at his trading center near Peterborough is one of the wonders of American archaeology.  So surprising do his knowledge of the constellations and his understanding of the motions of the sun through the signs of the zodiac appear that at first it seems impossible that the site could be ancient.  it is more like what one might expect to have been constructed during the early Middle Ages.  However, consideration of what has been discovered about the growth of astronomy shows that it is not at all impossible for Woden-lithi to have known what he did know and yet have lived in an epoch 3,5000 years before our own.


       Until about a century ago, all that we knew about ancient astronomy was what the Greeks and Romans had written.  It was supposed that the Greeks had named the constellations, and that therefore man's knowledge of the stars as mapped in the constellations could not be older than about 2,700 or 2,800 years; for some of the constellations, and their roles in setting the time of year for plowing, sowing and reaping, are mentioned by name in the works of Hesiod, the first Greek writer to refer to them, who lived about 800 BC.


       Then an unexpected discovery was made.  Archaeologists in the Middle East began to uncover tablets of stone in which clear reference was made to constellations, some of them recognizably the same as those we know today, yet the age of the records extended many centuries earlier, into a time antecedent to the Greek civilization.


       An English astronomer, Richard Proctor, devised an ingenious method of finding out when the constellations first received their names.  He plotted on a chart all the constellations known to the ancients.  He then examined the area in the sky, over the Southern Hemisphere, in which no constellations had been recorded until modern astronomers named them, because the ancient astronomers had not explored the Southern Hemisphere.  He found that this southern blank area has its center, not at the southern celestial pole, as one might expect, but in quire a different place:  a point in the southern sky some 25 degrees to one side of the South Pole. 


       When he realized that this center must once have been the pole, at the time when the constellations were named, he then attacked the related question, the known motions of the poles as the earth's axis has slowly wobbled like that of a spinning top.  He found that the ancient position of the poles he had discovered, for the time when constellations were named, corresponded to a direction of the earth's axis that was correct 4,000 years ago.


       Thus, the constellations must have been named some 2,000 years before the time of Christ.  it was then discovered that the description of some features of the sun's motion in the sky, given by a Greek astronomer named Eudoxus, could not possibly have been true at the time when Eudoxus wrote, but would have been correct had he been quoting from sources dating back to 2000 BC.  The position of the sun at the time of the vernal equinox (in March) was recorded by these early writers as lying in the zodiacal constellation of the Bull.  But in classical times, when Eudoxus wrote, the vernal equinox occurred when the sun is in the constellation of the Ram, some 30 degrees away.


       What this means for us is that when the Norsemen farmers first learned the arts of sowing seed by the calendar, and could thereby be sure of seeing the seed sprout instead of rotting in the ground, as would happen if it were not sown at the correct time, this phase of social history in the northern lands matched the rise of astronomy, about 2000 BC.  Evidently the astronomical skills passed along the same trade routs as did the trade goods themselves:  from the Danube and the Rhine there spread outward and northward into Germany, and then Scandinavia, a knowledge of the constellations and the motion of the sun through them.  Observatories would be established to watch for the equinoctial rising of the sun and for other significant astronomical events that could be used to keep the calendar correct and functional. 


       Hence it was one of the concerns of Woden-lithi in America to ensure that his colonists were provided with a practical means of observing the sky and the heavenly bodies, so that they could have always a reliable farmers' calendar.  Certain religious festivals were also regulated by the calendar, such as the spring (New Year) festival in March, and the midwinter or Yule festival held in December.


       To establish his observatory, Woden-lithi had first to determine the position of the north-south meridian of his site.  He probably used the following method.  First, he selected a central observing point, and engraved two concentric circles into the rock (thus forming the head and central "eye" of what later became the main sun-god image).  An assistant then held a vertical rod, centered in the marker circles, on a clear day as the sun approached its noon altitude.  The shadow cast by the vertical rod would grow shorter as the sun rose higher, and then would begin to lengthen again as the sun passed the highest elevation at noon, and commenced to decline.  The direction of the shadow at its shortest length was marked on the rock.  Checks on subsequent days would establish this shadow line more precisely.  The marked lines except for minor errors due to variations in the velocity of the earth's motion (for which no correction could be made in those early days), would be the meridian, running north and south.


       Woden-lithi could now lay out the cardinal directions, north, south, east, and west, by making a right-angle intersection with the meridian line, to give the east-west axis (see illustration  below) Instead of cutting lines for these cardinal axes, however, he made sighting points at their extremities by cutting a sunburst figure, as shown.




CONSTELLATIONS - Known to Woden-lithi


King Woden--lithi’s calendar observatory at Peterborough, Ontario


       The sighting sunburst for due east he then identified by an inscription lettered in ogam consaine, shown on the right side of the illustration above) In his Old Norse language it reads M-D  O-S-D-N (Old Norse mot osten, facing east).  The illustration gives a plan view to the scale shown, so the visitor can readily identify these features at the site.


       At this stage in his work Woden-lithi had now provided his colonists with the fundamental tool for regulating their calendar, for, every year at the vernal equinox in March, when the ancient year began for all civilized peoples, an observer standing on the site would see the sun rise at a point on the horizon lying on the line of sight from the "eye" of the central sun-god figure. to the eastern sunburst figure.  On that occasion each year the Norsemen peoples held a festival, named for the goddess of the dawn, Eostre.  The name survives in our modern language as Easter, now of course linked with a Christian festival to which the old pagan name has been attached.


       Ancient peoples also celebrated another festival on the shortest day of the year, called by the Norsemen nations Yule; this pagan festival is nowadays lined with the Christian festival of Christmas, still called Yule (spelled Jul) in Scandinavian countries.  Woden-lithi therefore wished to provide his colonists with a means of determining the day on which the Yule feast should be held, for to the ancient peoples it was a great day of celebration, marking the end of the sun's winter decline and the promise of a new and warmer season ahead.


       Woden-lithi's inscriptions tell us that he remained in Canada only for five months and that he returned to his home in Scandinavia in October, hence he could not observe the direction in which the sunrise would be observed on the actual day of midwinter, for he was no longer in Canada.  So apparently he estimated the direction, drawing on his experience in Scandinavia. 


       In southern Norway the precise direction of sunrise on Midwinter Day varies quite considerably, for at the latitudes spanned by the interval between the southern end of the Skagerrak (at about 56 deg. N) and the head of Oslo Fjord (at 60 deg. N), the astronomical equation that determines the sunrise direction gives solutions that range over a span of some seven degrees between the extreme values. 


       Consequently, since Woden-lithi probably did not have any clear conception of latitude, and would have to judge the situation in terms of his notions of the variations seen in Norway itself and neighboring Sweden, he would probably conclude that the Peterborough site seemed to be comparable with southernmost Scandinavia.


       For example, he would have noticed that the midday sun stood higher in the sky at midsummer at Peterborough (when he was present to observe) than it did in his homeland, and he would also know that the noonday sun stands higher in the southern Sweden than it does near Oslo on any given day.  From such knowledge he perhaps estimated the likely sunrise direction for Midwinter Day, and cut his estimated axis into the rock at the site.


       This he marked by another sun-god figure (which is labeled Solstice on the constellation illustration) Woden-lithi himself had a label carved into the rock beside this figure.  As can be seen from the illustration, it spells W-L  H-K.  Hoki was the Ancient Norse name of the midwinter festival: the word still survives today in the Scotch word Hogmanay, the traditional name of the Scottish midwinter holiday, now applied to the New Year holiday.  The letters W-L evidently represent the hvil of Old Norse, meaning a time of rest, a holiday from work.  The importance of this Hoki holiday can be judged from the large scale in which the letters have been engraved at the site.  It was, no doubt, the time of the major national festival for all Norsemen peoples, and Woden-lithi undoubtedly intended that the old traditions be kept alive in his trading colony in the New World.


       As we examine the site today, where these ancient instructions for regulating the calendar year and its festivals still survive, it is clear that whereas the critical date for starting the year and determining the correct time of planting seed, the equinox, is accurately set out, the same is not true of the Hoki axis.  it overestimates the southern declination of the sun by several degrees. 


       Woden-lithi's colonists would find that the midwinter sunrise did not, in fact, ever range quite so far south as the king had predicted, and that the sunrise point would begin to return toward the eastern horizon before ever reaching the southeastern azimuth to which Woden-lithi's Hoki axis now points.  Nonetheless the general tenor of the matter would be clear enough, and since most years the midwinter sunrise tends to occur in banks of low-lying cloud, the error was probably known to only a few of the more meticulous observers.


       Those of us who have made the somewhat hazardous journey to observe the midwinter sunrise at sites in the Green Mountains [Vermont] that are oriented for this purpose, have discovered the whole area under the deepest snowdrifts.  The same circumstance, no doubt, is true of Woden-lithi's site: the whole inscription area, with all the astronomical axes, would usually lie buried under deep snow, hence invisible and useless for making astronomical determinations of the festival dates.


       An explanation for these conflicts of data is to be sought in our developing knowledge of climatic change.  In Woden-lithi's time the whole earth had a much milder climate than it did one thousand years later. The site at Peterborough may well have been prairie rather than dense needle-forest, as it is a present.  Open views of the distant horizon could be had, the actual sunrise could be observed, and because of the milder climate, the snow, if present at all, could be cleared away from the site.


       Also, as the climate deteriorated with the progress of time, the people here at the end of the Bronze Age, around 800 BC, began to find the snow an increasing impediment to their calendar regulation.  They were forced to construct a new type of observatory, one that could retain its major astronomical axes in a visible and usable state despite the snow accumulations.


       These new observatories are probably where the observers could be housed comfortably below ground, with a large living space that could be heated by fire, and with the axis of the entire chamber directed toward the midwinter-sunrise azimuth on the distant horizon, so that the calendar observation could be made simply by sighting from the inner end of the chamber, through the entrance doorway, which was built so as to face the midwinter sunrise point.


       Once this practice had been adopted to overcome the ferocity of the winters, reaching its extremes of discomfort as the Iron Age began, the advantages of astronomically oriented chambers would be realized, and soon all observatories, whether based on summer, equinoctial, or winter sunrise directions, would eventually be constructed as comfortable chambers.  The old open-air sites, like that of Woden-lithi, would be abandoned forever, became buried under drifting soil and leaves and then turf (as happened at Peterborough), or would be eroded away by the elements till nothing readable remained, and thus disappear altogether.


       To return to Woden-lithi's site, it is of interest to note that he adopted the ancient Semitic method of naming the south direction.  The Semitic peoples regarded east as the main map direction.  Facing east they would name the cardinal points on either side, so that north became "left-hand" and south became "right-hand."  On Woden-lithi's site we find that he has engraved in very large Tifinag letters the word H-GH-R at the southern extremity of the platform, where he as cut yet another sunburst figure.


       The word intended is Old Norse hogr, meaning "right-hand."  The word is still sued today in Sweden where, if you are given street directions in Stockholm or Lund, you are sure to be told to take such and such a turn till högra, "to the right."  The Danes say hFjre, but we who speak English seem to have lost the word, and replaced it by another root.  The Old Norse words for south (sudhra) and north (nord) are nowhere to be found on Woden-lithi's site, so perhaps they had not yet come into use.


       Now, since we find Woden-lithi using the Semitic (Mesopotamian) methods of naming directions by reference to the right and left when facing east, and since east is the only direction that he actually calls by its special name, east (osten in his dialect), it is not surprising that we should find Woden-lithi in possession of so much information on the Babylonian maps of the heavens, as designated in the form of the named constellations.  


Constellations in Woden-lithi’s Day


       The first hint we encounter on the observatory site that the stars were already grouped into constellations in Woden-lithi's day is given by the northern end of his meridian (see constellation chart on previous page) Here we find an inscription in Tifinag that reads


W-K-N  H-L  A-GH, and it is evidently to read as Old Norse

Vagn hjul aka, "The wagon-wheel drives."


       Our Norsemen ancestors knew the constellation near the present north celestial pole that we in America call the Big Dipper today, and which Europeans often call the Plow or Wain, as the Wagon.  it was supposed to be an ox wagon (that is, the ancient chariot, before horses had been tamed) and was said to be driven by the god Odin, the Woden of our colonists.


       In Woden-lithi's day the north the star Thuban, in the constellation Draco, marked celestial pole; nowadays it lies some 25 degrees away from the pole.  The Wagon was conceived as wheeling around and around the Pole Star.  The wheeling motion, of course, is caused by the rotation of the earth, but in Woden-lithi's day it was conceived as a rotation of the sky itself.  We have other hints.... about star groups known by name to the peoples of the north in Woden-lithi's time:  the four stars that form the square of Pegasus (Called Hestemerki, "horse-sign," by the Ancient Norse) seem to be the basis of the four dots that make the Tifinag letter h; and the w-shaped group of stars that form Cassiopeia, called Yorsla by the ancient Scandinavians, seem to be the origin of the w-shaped letter that gives the sound of Y.


       To the southwest of Woden-lithi's observatory lies an area of limestone where the constellations of the Norsemen zodiac have been engraved.  We note that some of the Babylonian constellations bear replacement names in the Woden-lithi version.  The ram (Aries) is obviously a bear, and some broken letters beside the image of the animal seem to spell in Tifinag the word B-R-N, a root that appears in all Norse tongues in one form or another, as bjorn in Scandinavian, and bruin in English.


       The next sign, the Bull (Taurus) of classical astronomy, is drawn as a moose; it is labeled in Tifinag L-GN, Old Norse elgen, the elk.  The Lion (Leo), though labeled L-N (Old Norse leon), seems to have been carved by an artist who had in mind a lynx.  The Crab (Cancer) looks like a lobster, and it is drawn as if it lies at the feet of the Twins (Gemini), here identified as M-T  TH-W-L-N-GN (Old Norse matig-tvillingr, "the mighty twins").


       The significance to Woden-lithi's people of the zodiac was that it provided a means of describing the annual path of the sun through the heavens.  The sun spends about one month in each of twelve constellations, which together form the so-called zodiac (a word meaning, "girdle of animals").


       The vernal equinox, the start of the ancient Norsemen year, occurs at the time when the sun is located in the zodiacal sign for that equinox.  Two thousand years before Christ, when, as we have seen, the constellations received their names, the sun occupied the Bull (the elk in Woden-lithi's zodiac).  Around 1700 BC the slow wobble of the earth's axis (called the procession of the equinoxes) caused the vernal equinox position to move out of the Bull into the neighboring sign, Aries (in Woden-lithi's terminology, the bear).


       In Woden-lithi's zodiac map he shows the situation in just that way.  The word W-GN (Old Norse vaegn, a balance) signifies the "balance of night and day," and is set opposite the space between Taurus and Aries.


       The sun is shown entering the W-R-M zone of the zodiac at that point.  The word intended is simply our word warm, Old Norse, varm, meaning summer.  On the part of the zodiac corresponding to the sun's positions during the cold months the engraver has written the letters W-N-T, our word winter, Old Norse vintr.  All the indications are, then, that Woden-lithi used a chart of the sky that was appropriate in 1700 BC.  Since his writing system and the style of his inscriptions match so well the inscriptions that Scandinavian archaeologists declare to belong to the early Bronze Age, we may assume that Woden-lithi did in fact live around that time.  Hence, until evidence is found to the contrary, Fell believed that we have to date his visit to America as having occurred around 1700 BC.


       There are other indications that this is a reasonable estimate.  Some archaeologists who have investigated the site have suggested a possible age of 3,500 years, based on the similarity of the art style to that of Europe 3,500 years ago.  At a neighboring site in Ontario where a thousand or so copper artifacts were excavated, radiocarbon dating indicated occupation a thousand years before the time proposed for Woden-lithi;, that is, around 3000 BC.  And some of the radiocarbon dates from the Lake Superior copper mines indicate that the mines were worked between about 3000 and 2000 BC.  All these data suggest that the copper-mining industry was already an old established activity in Canada long before Woden-lithi came to trade for copper.


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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#35 [url]

Mar 25 13 12:52 PM

and yes i could go on and on...but what's the point>? whatever does not fit into the jesuit freemason and knights templar run university's is somehow faked? bull-%%*#, real is real and deniel is the first proof that says something is there and to see this across this land north and south of turtle island seems to point> to the truth of a massive cover-up and information control; as i have demonstrated every single time my sites are stolen or information changed by rcmp or fbi or someother poorlylit corporational entity, proof is in the actions to prevent it being shared. much like these earlier claims the neanderthals are extinct? yeah, neanderthalenisis is alive and well and is one of the two star seed's mentioned in the bible, and yes cross reference and see that neanderthals had o-rh blood: also see this is the dominant blood for many turtle islander's also see that turtle islander's discovered us from "eire" first coming on their land, and yes the hebrews are infact neanderthal and shared blood around the world, there seems to be a clamp down on any discussion surrounding the americus empire, and yet the COLONIAL ERA OF USERPER'S wants to distance reality on that as well... so if you are a corporation, all your claims go to the vatican: if you are not by learning and research; then you are apart of the great mystery of life and the universe. the vatican is responsible for the destruction of the turtle island people north pole to south pole, and yes the ancient erie lines are still here: and i am one of them. use your bull-%%*# stick to push away the systemic prejudice and  ridicule of the eire people, we share blood on this land with the once greatest people on earth, and still do, and always will. so to you FICTIONS and SCHOLARS who need to bury the truth: kiss my royal ass. neanderthals: know who you are: your not considered HUMAN, treated less then HUMAN, and yet we are so much then HUMAN, we are here to stay. just examine the genocides on both sides of the atlantic and the extermination of the "picts" and any with a claim back to the high kings of breton or briton or erie. mtdna testing needs to be done transparently: all my challenges have been answered in silence for transparent testing, so....this "red hand" just gave YOU the finger. there must be something to all this to beat and torture me; right? now when will my relations on eire wake up? how many descendent's of Aed and tia tephi and the red hand are still out there and unaware? my english relations are aware and have infact use parts of my ideas and works, so why did those i IRELAND and ENGLAND show up to banks and gov offices in pajama's and house coats? "good morning turtle island." that's why. we are at home here on this land too. and to those who criticized me for not doing the same, i don't wear pajama's.....keep smiling people, the begining of everything bright and purposable is at hand. 

Last Edited By: eyes of fire Mar 25 13 2:58 PM. Edited 1 time.

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#38 [url]

Apr 11 13 5:39 PM

In the sixteenth century the spelling "Arcadie" with an "r" appeared on maps of Acadia. Arcadia was a pastoral region of ancient Greece. It was popularized by poets as signifying a place of innocence and happiness, yet the terms Arcadia and Acadia were once used to describe over here. That "Acadia" is a Mi'kmaw word is beyond dispute. That it was known and used in Europe hundreds of years before 1492 is treated like an out of place artifact; it's ignored.

In the 1440s, René of Anjou, count of Bar, Provence, Piedmont and Guise, duke of Calabria, Anjou and Lorraine, and king of Hungary, Naples, Sicily, Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and Jerusalem was forever obsessing about three things: Arcadia, the grail, and the Merovingian's.

Roi  Perdu - the Lost King

Arcadia, a word much bandied about in Europe before the discovery of America, had to be our Acadia because the Greek Arcadia was pre-Hellenic, and thus long-gone by René's time. His grail-masques were all the rage in fifteenth century France and concerned themselves with three themes: a fountain; an underground stream; and a lost king.

The fountain, of course, was the fountain of youth which bathed the weary traveler in immortality. The Underground Stream was knowledge of where the Grail dynasty was hiding along with a remnant of the lost arts of Earth’s Golden Age, with the latter being the guardian of the former. And the lost king was Mérovée, after whom the Merovingian dynasty was named. He is said to have had two fathers, king Clodio and a "bestae Neptuni quinotaur similis," a beast of Neptune similar to a quinotaur. A quinotaur, by the way, is a bulldog. Calling the beast Neptunic would suggest that the bulldog in question, Mérovée's second father, came from across the sea, from over here.

Mérovée was one of a number of "long haired" sorcerer priest-kings who, grail lore claims, was descended from Jesus Christ and Mary Magdalene, with the dynasty itself claiming descent from Arcadia.

It has recently come to light that skulls were found in Merovingian burials showing signs of trepanning, where the skull was drilled to provide access to the brain. People assume that because trepanning is a sign of an advanced and sophisticated medical procedure, it was used to perform brain surgery. Another reason for its usage might have been to create a portal to rapid and sustained enlightenment.

There are a number of cases on record of people who have drilled holes in their heads in attempts to achieve enlightenment. Unfortunately for science these cases have been consigned to the looney bin of history, along with sundry other crack pot ideas.

These lost kings were said to be great shamans, who studied the alchemical and spiritual link between man and the universe.

Shamanism is said to be man’s oldest religion. One theme that emerges from a study of comparative shamanism is the universal nature of the experience. A shaman in the African veldt and his counterpart in Alaska seem to be sharing the same experience, an ecstasy of enlightenment gained when the soul leaves the body in search of a vision. The vision becomes the bedrock upon which his life will progress, guided by the animal spirit seen in the vision. The eye of a hawk, wing of an eagle, swiftness of a stag, strength of a moose. These are the riches sought.

Another theme prevalent in shamanism is the sacred cave under an equally sacred mountain. The mountain may be artificial as in a pyramid or mound, but the same process occurs, the cave is a portal to the spiritual world, often called fairyland, Hades, the Underworld, Middle Earth, Hollow Earth or even the Other Side. The mountain is often topped with a temple where one may commune directly with the deity.

In her introduction to Silas T. Rand’s 1893 Legends of the Micmac (free copy), Helen Webster describes the shamanism recorded by the Baptist minister. “Children exposed or lost by their parents are miraculously preserved. They grow up suddenly to manhood, and are endowed with superhuman powers. They become avengers of the guilty, and the protectors of the good. They drive up the moose and the caribou to their camps, and slaughter them at their leisure. The elements are under their control : they can raise the wind, conjure up storms or disperse them, make it hot or cold, wet or dry as they please. They can multiply the smallest amount of food indefinitely, evade the subtlety and rage of their enemies, kill them miraculously, and raise their slaughtered friends to life.

“The ancient Boowin (shaman) could, he firmly believes, fly through the air, go down through the earth, remain underwater as long as he chooses, transform himself into an animal”. (x/iii)

We are no closer to understanding the science of shamanism today than we were in Rand’s day. Where he sees the miraculous, we see weird physics, which is currently enrapt in a state of chaos they claim is a legitimate pursuit, and we are currently looking into hyperspace for answers, hoping to find a link between the old religion and modern science deep in the bowels of the atom.

We are also searching the historical record for links between Old Europe and pre-discovery America. We find a common thread running through the underbrush of history. This thread is the grail.

Scholars have linked the Arcadian theme to the wanderings of the tribe of Benjamin, its exile in Greece, its migration into Germany, and its fusion into the bloodline of the Merovingian dynasty that ruled the German-Frankish territory between 480 and 751 AD. The fusion itself has been symbolized in viticultural terms as a grafting of vines. And where else would the new vines take root? In Vinland the Good. No wonder the kings were lost!

These roi perdu or Lost Kings had special powers, and when we list them, we see that they were shamanic. They could talk to animals, cure disease with the laying-on of hands, foretell the future, live for a very long time, and were in possession of the Ark of the Covenant.

After Dagobert II was murdered with the complicity of Rome in 751, his heirs set out on a long migration. They were known to history as the rex dei, the god-kings. Their followers are known today as the celi dei, or the Culdees, the followers of the rex dei. They were one step ahead of the axe as they sailed from island to island in search of refuge. The Norse followed their trail across the Atlantic where they found further evidence of their presence, naming the land Greater Ireland in honor of the Celtic pioneers they soon heard about once they were in Vinland long enough to learn the language. bsp11.jpg

It would be possible, even today, to recognize a Merovingian king if we met him because he would be sporting a very special birthmark, a red cross above his heart, which brings us back to the subject at hand: Acadia.

bsp12.jpgWas "La Cadie" the place where the lost Merovingian kings could be found? I believe so. In fact, there are a series of petroglyphs in Kejimakujik National Park  which definitely show not only a Merovingian king, but the “lost” Ark of the Covenant as well. This Ark symbol is a basket with feathers attached. (The cross-hatching on the bottom are called grail-trestles) .bsp12-2.jpg


I wasn’t surprised to learn that this petroglyph was the Mi’kmaq shaman symbol. I was surprised to find that it performs the same function in Christian iconography as well - as a shaman symbol, an ancient cell phone that rang in Heaven. It also confirms an ancient link between the two groups - the Benjamites, who had the ark with them in exile, and the Maritime Archaic Mi’kmaq, known for their pottery.

bsp12-3.jpgMore Mi’kmaq-Malicite pottery

Early Mi’kmaq Ceramic shards.

The Ark itself was a small box made of acacia wood, overlaid with gold. It measured 1.15 meters long, 0.7 meters wide and 0.7 meters high. It was carried by two long bars, also made of acacia wood, also overlaid with gold. Apparently, afterbsp12-5.jpg an ark was constructed in a university lab in the 1970s using the biblical blueprint, and after adding a fruit juice electrolyte, it was found to be too powerful an electric generator to be used safely and was quickly dismantled.

Another common element found on images of the ark is feathers. Whether cherubim angels or single feathers as in the petroglyph, the effect is the same, the feather acts in the energy generation in a way we don’t understand with our current level of knowledge about the natural world. The Bible states as much in Hebrews 9:5: And over it the cherubim's of glory shadowing the mercyseat, of which we cannot now speak particularly.bsp13.jpg

One further image of the ark will help confirm its antiquity. An Egyptian Ark of the Covenant also existed. In fact, dozens, if not hundreds, of arks may have been used by various groups over the ages to confirm their spiritual link with their god. Here we see Isis, the Queen of the Egyptian firmament, sitting on a slightly different model of the Ark of the Covenant.

Isis was the goddess of the early dynastic period and ruled over the heavens as, at times the wife of Ra, or the mother of Ra, or even as the virgin mother of Ra. In fact, we see the  template of the Christian Mary in Isis, not only the Virgin Mother, but also the loyal wife, of Jesus.

A Petroglyph Love Affair

bsp13-1.jpgThose who have a copy of Chief Lindsay Marshall's book of poetry will note that the cover illustration is a series of petroglyphs artfully reproduced by Dozay Christmas from her 1993 poster, A New Partnership.

The poster tells a very riveting petroglyph story. A man and a woman are shown. The man has the cross over his heart along with two stars beneath. One star is five-pointed; the other, eight. The woman has the feather-basket ark-like affair in place of her head. Both figures are holding hands, suggesting a kinship tie.

The Ark-headdress, is a shaman symbol representing knowledge, and shows that it resides with women. The cross-heart is Merovingian. The two stars symbolize a union of two distinct peoples. The eight-pointed star eventually became the symbol of the Knights of Malta, but like the five-pointed star that shows up in their flag, both stars are considered Mi’kmaq power symbols today.

Mi'kmaq women don't wear feathered headdresses, except in old books when they’re asked to “look Indian for the camera.” They wear a chaperon-like peaked cap, so the basket-headdress has another, more elevating symbolism. The woman's head is the Ark of the Covenant. The man's heart is Merovingian.

One is reminded of something in Deuteronomy called Moses’ Blessing:

And of Benjamin he [Moses] said,
The beloved of the Lord shall dwell in safety by him;
and the Lord shall cover him all the day long,
and he shall dwell between his shoulders.
Deut 33:12

In the petroglyph we see the Lord dwelling between the woman’s shoulder blades, as if she were a Benjamite heiress, and as if Acadia was the Arcadia of Greek myth all along.

Hold that thought as we ask, what does all this petroglyph evidence mean? Two theories compete for acceptance as to who created the petroglyphs that are found throughout Nova Scotia. They were done either by "little people" or by shamans who were so illuminated by truth that they created the rock carvings with their bare hands.

Little people, like wee folk and fairies, are blessed with the kind of skill needed to create petroglyphs. In one Mi'kmaw story a little man is kept in a small box. He can move mountains, kill all your enemies, then get you the daughter of the chief. The story parallels the genie-in-the-bottle tale, and is, unmistakably, a grail story.

The enlightened carver who creates the glyph by hand suggests either a feat of mind-over-matter or a lost art which briefly turns stone to the consistency of butter. The juice of a certain fruit mixed with the droppings of a certain bird would melt rock, according to Inca sources. Their walls made of oddly-shaped yet tightly-fitting stones that almost defy duplication today may have been shaped by this method. A recent Discovery channel program showed how easily they shaped the walls, however. A team of workers using big, round boulders that slowly but constantly wore the rock down revealed how simple a task it was to accomplish.apetroglyphark.jpg

A third theory, obviously, is that someone carved the glyphs into the rocks by hand using stone or iron tools. It's easy to lose sight of what the artifact means when we try to determine how it was made. The glyphs were made to record a momentous event.

If we accept petroglyphs as primary historical sources, then we have uncovered nothing less than a Merovingian kinship tie with the Mi'kmaq which took place during Arthurian times. This alone should compel us to rewrite the history books, but unsigned petroglyphs will not convince orthodox historians to reconsider the dates for the discovery of America.

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#39 [url]

Apr 19 13 2:14 AM

the lost civilizations of (turtle island) north america.

make sure you stop this video on the artifacts which clearly show hebrew and ogham writing, and then make discovery.

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eyes of fire


Posts: 553

#40 [url]

Apr 22 13 2:58 AM

A Uniquely Anthropological Approach to Human Origins and Dispersals
American Indians, Neanderthals and Denisovans: Insights from PCA Views

American Indians, Neanderthals and Denisovans: Insights from PCA Views

Dienekes posted a SNP PCA showing the relative position of a sample of modern human populations from the Harvard HGDP along the axes formed by Chimpanzees, Denisovans and Neanderthals. On the broad-view PCA, the red dot indicates Chimpanzees, the green dot Neanderthals and the blue dot Denisovans. In accordance with earlier studies, in the zoom-in version of the PCA, Eurasians shift toward Neanderthals, Papuans toward Denisovans, while Africans and, especially, San look closer to Chimpanzees.


Among Eurasians, Lahu and Naxi, two Sino-Tibetan populations from China, are the closest to Neanderthals. This is, by itself, is surprising, as Neanderthals must have had more extensive contact with Europeans, not East Asians. American Indians again are not represented in the sample. But if we look at another SNP PCA from Skoglund & Jakobsson’s “Archaic Human Ancestry in East Asia” (2011), we’ll see that it’s American Indians that are noticeably closer to Neanderthals.

Where the Harvard HGDP sample failed, Skoglund & Jakobsson’s sample encompassing HapMap 3, Chicago HGDP and Finnish HapMap data identified the position of American Indians in PC1 and PC2. If American Indians were part of the sample from which Dienekes derived his PCA, they would have fallen in the space between Lahu/Naxi and Neanderthals. Skoglund & Jakobsson’s PCA also suggests some proximity between American Indians and Denisovans. This proximity comes out clearly in their Table S3 (see below in slightly shortened form), where Colombian and Karitiana are right next to Melanesians and ahead of Naxi in terms of frequency of the Denisova allele. Maya and Lahu are further down below but both are ahead of most West Asians, South Asians and West Eurasians. It appears that all easternmost populations, whether Melanesians, East Asians or South American Indians, are shifted closer to the Denisovan pole, while all of American Indians are shifted closer to Neanderthals.

This is confirmed on Skoglund & Jakobsson’s map of the distribution of the Denisova allele in modern human populations.

The gradient connects Sahul, East Asia and America as the regions with most pronounced Denisovan admixture with West Eurasia and Africa (no Denisovan admixture). On Dienekes’s PCA some African populations seem to be shifting slightly in the direction of the Denisovan pole, as some of Dienekes’s readers noted in the Comments. It seems likely that just like Neanderthal admixture is apparently present in the Yoruba, Denisovan admixture may eventually be detected in some Sub-Saharan Africans at some of the lowest frequencies in the world.

It’s interesting to compare the distribution of Denisovan “admixture” with the distribution of Neanderthal “admixture” in the polymorphisms observed in human X chromosome’s dystrophin gene (ds44). The least derived B006 haplotype was observed in modern humans and in Neanderthals. In modern humans the frequency of B006 was the highest among North American Indians followed by Europeans (see Ziętkiewicz et al. Haplotypes in the Dystrophin DNA Segment Point to a Mosaic Origin of Modern Human Diversity. Am J Hum Genet 2003 November; 73 (5): 994–1015). American Indians also showed other near-basal haplotypes B052, B064 suggesting that the conservation of B006 among them is part of a systemic phenomenon. Applying a formula of sequence divergence to estimate the age of B006 on the Americas, Austin Whittall obtained the figure of 188,000 years, which is roughly the same time (pending molecular clock optimizations) as the emergence of “anatomically modern humans” in the African archaeological record.

B006 has not been reported from the southern areas of Sub-Saharan Africa but one copy was observed in Ethiopia and four in Burkina Faso suggesting gene flow from the north. A map of the worldwide distribution of B006 is shown below (from Yotova et al. “An X-Linked Haplotype of Neandertal Origin Is Present Among All Non-African Populations,” Mol. Biol. Evol. 28 (7), 2011).

Similarities between the New World and Melanesia/Papua New Guinea also transpired in a large-scale analysis of worldwide microsatellite variation by Sarah Tishkoff’s lab.

         “The ratio of variance and heterozygosity is the largest in Native American and Papuan and Melanesian populations followed by East Asians, all with values greater than one, intermediate in most Europeans, Middle Easterners, and Indians, with values near one, and with values less than one in most African populations and a few Middle Eastern and European populations” (Tishkoff et al. “The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans,” Science 324 (5930), 2009, Suppl. Mat., p. 10).

This means that American Indians are Melanesians/Papuans are small populations subject to genetic drift. Tishkoff et al. believe that the highest ratio of variance to heterozygosity also means that American Indians and Papuans/Melanesians went through “a strong bottleneck followed by a recent and rapid expansion,” but the recency of this event is cast into doubt given the “archaic admixture” evidence. Most interestingly, African hunter-gatherers, Hadza and San, have the lowest heterozygosity values among all African populations (Tishkoff et al., Suppl. Mat., p. 10), and on Tishkoff’s Fig. S3 (see above) they are noticeably shifted rightward in the direction of American Indians and Melanesians/Papuans. Tishkoff et al. attribute this unusual position of African foragers to their “stable small population sizes” (p. 10-11) and not to their recency. What Tishkoff et al.’s data seems to show is that American Indians and Melanesians/Papuans preserve an ancient population structure that’s also the ancient population structure of the Hadza and the San in Africa, but in Africa it’s overlaid by a thick stratum of agricultural and nomadic cattle-breeding diversity.

Going back to “archaic admixture,” higher frequencies of Neanderthal alleles among North American Indians and slightly lower frequencies of Denisovan allelles in South American Indians are very unexpected and don’t fit the “archaic admixture” theory, as there were no Neanderthals or Denisovans in America. There are ways to dismiss the inconvenient facts by attributing them to “ascertainment bias,” “false positives,” or “genetic drift.” But by the same token the proximity of the San to the Chimpanzee pole can be explained away without inferring that the San are basal to all other human populations. Science needs to have a strong theory to account for anomalous facts. That’s when other disciplines beside genetics come in handy. It may not be a coincidence that the signs of “archaic admixture” are the highest precisely where linguistic diversity is also the highest, namely in the New World and Papua New Guinea. It’s precisely the New World and the Sahul that Johanna Nichols (Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time, 1992) classified as linguistic “residual zones” that preserve grammatical structures suggestive of what the earliest human language may have been like. Ethnologists and ethnomusicologists find striking similarities between South America and Papua New Guinea in myths, rituals and music (see, e.g., the collection of essays Gender in Amazonia and Melanesia, edited by Thomas Gregor and Donald Tuzin, its review my folklorist Yuri Berezkin in Latin American Indian Literatures Journal 18 (2002), or Victor Grauer’s description of musical parallels). Haploid genetics (mtDNA and Y-DNA) hasn’t matched the unmistakable cultural and linguistic similarities between the New World and Papua New Guinea with specific haplotypes shared between the two regions. Neither has it matched the discovery of “archaic admixture” with similar “archaic” mtDNA and Y-DNA haplotypes. But haploid systems are subjected to stronger genetic drift and may have simply lost traces of an ancient allelic pattern connecting the New World and Papua New Guinea. If this is the case, then the patterns observed in cultural and linguistic data may be more conservative than some of the patterns detected in haploid genetics.

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